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6. Anatomy of Flowering Plants

REVISION NOTES

 

CLASS 11 BIOLOGY

UNIT I – DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLD

Chapter 1 – The Living World 

Chapter 2 – Biological Classification 

Chapter 3 – Plant Kingdom 

Chapter 4 – Animal Kingdom 

UNIT II – STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS

Chapter 5 – Morphology of Flowering Plants 

Chapter 6 – Anatomy of Flowering Plants 

Chapter 7 – Structural Organisation in Animals 

UNIT III – CELL : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS

 

Chapter 8 – Cell: The Unit of Life 

Chapter 9 – Bio-Molecules 

Chapter 10 – Cell Cycle and Cell Division 

UNIT IV – PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 

Chapter 11 – Transport in Plants 

Chapter 12 – Mineral Nutrition 

Chapter 13 – Photosynthesis in higher plants 

Chapter 14 – Respiration in Plants 

Chapter 15 – Plant Growth and Development 

UNIT V – HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 

Chapter 16 – Digestion And Absorption 

Chapter 17 – Breathing and Exchange of Gases 

Chapter 18 – Body fluids and circulation 

Chapter 19 – Excretory Products and their Elimination 

Chapter 20 – Locomotion and Movement 

Chapter 21 – Neural Control and Coordination 

Chapter 22 – Chemical Coordination and Integration 

CLASS 12 BIOLOGY

Unit-VI Reproduction
  

Chapter 1 : Reproduction in Organisms 

Chapter 2 : Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants 

Chapter 3 : Human Reproduction 

Chapter 4 : Reproductive Health 

Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution

Chapter 5 : Principles of Inheritance and Variation 

Chapter 6 : Molecular Basis of Inheritance 

Chapter 7 : Evolution 

Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter 8 : Human Health and Disease 

Chapter 9 : Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 

Chapter 10 : Microbes in Human Welfare 

Unit-IX Biotechnology  

Chapter 11 : Biotechnology Principles and Processes 

Chapter 12 : Biotechnology and its Applications 

Unit-X Ecology and Environment 

Chapter 13 : Organisms and Populations 

Chapter 14 : Ecosystem 

Chapter 15 : Biodiversity and Conservation 

Chapter 16 : Environmental Issues 

Tissues

  1. A group of cells with common origin is called a tissue. The cells of a tissue usually perform a common function.

Types of Tissue:

  1. There are two main types of plant tissues, viz. meristematic tissue and permanent tissue.

MERISTEMATIC TISSUES:

  1. The cells in the meristematic tissue have the capability to divide. Meristematic tissue is found in growth regions of plants, e.g. root tip, shoot tip, buds, etc. The meristematic tissues are further divided into two types, viz. primary and secondary meristems.

  2. Primary Meristems: The meristematic tissues which appear early in the life of a plant and which are responsible for the formation of primary plant body; are called primary meristem. There are two types of primary meristem, viz. apical meristem and intercalary meristem.

  3. Apical Meristem: As the name suggest, the apical meristem is found at the apex of root and stem. During the formation of leaves and elongation of stem, some cells of the apical meristem are left behind from the shoot tip. These cells constitute the axillary bud. Axillary buds are capable of forming a branch or a flower.

  4. Intercalary Meristem: The intercalary meristem is found between mature tissues. In grasses, the intercalary meristem helps in regenerating parts which were removed by the grazing animals.

PERMANENT TISSUES:

  1. The newly formed plant cells become specialized and lose the ability of cell division. Such cells are called permanent or mature cells and form the permanent tissues. There are two types of permanent tissues, viz. simple tissue and complex tissue.

  2. Simple Tissue: All the cells in a simple tissue are of only one type. Simple tissue is further divided into three types, viz. parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.

    1. Parenchyma: The cells of parenchyma are usually isodiametric. They can be spherical, oval, round, polygonal or elongated in shape. The cell wall is thin and is made up of cellulose. Cells of parenchyma are either closely packed or have small intercellular spaces. Photosynthesis, storage and secretion are the main functions of parenchyma. Moreover, the bulk of the plant is made up of parenchyma.

    2. Collenchyma: Cells of collenchyma are thickened at corners because of deposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. The cells can be oval, spherical and polygonal. Collenchyma is present in layers below the epidermis in dicotyledonous plants. Collenchyma provides mechanical strength; alongwith flexibility to certain plant parts, like stalk of a leaf.

    3. Sclerenchyma: The cells of sclerenchyma are long, narrow and have thick and lignified cell walls. There can be a few or numerous pits in sclerenchyma. Cells of sclerenchyma are usually dead with our without protoplast. Sclerenchyma can be either fibres or sclereids. The thick-walled elongated and pointed cells in sclerenchyma are called fibres. The fibres usually occur in groups. The spherical, oval or cylindrical cells with very narrow lumen; in sclerenchyma are called sclereids. Sclereids are usually found in the fruit walls of nuts, pulp of fruits like guava, pear and sapota; seed coats of legumes and leaves of tea. The gritty texture of pear or guava is because of sclereids. The main function of sclerenchyma is to provide mechanical support.

  3. Complex Tissues:A complex plant tissue is made up of more than one type of cells. There are two types of complex plant tissues, viz. xylem and phloem.

    1. Xylem: Xylem is composed of four elements, viz. tracheids, vessels, xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.

      1. Tracheids: These are elongated or tube-like cells. They have thick and lignified walls and tapering ends. The tracheid cells are dead and protoplasm is absent. Tracheids and vessels are the main conducting elements in flowering plants.

      2. Vessel: These are long, cylindrical tube-like structures. These are made up of many cells which are called vessel members. Each vessel member has lignified walls and a large central cavity. Protoplasm is absent in vessel cells. The vessel members are interconnected through perforations in their common walls. The presence of vessels is a characteristic feature of angiosperms.

      3. Xylem Fibres: The xylem fibres have highly thickened walls and obliterated central lumens. Septa may be present or absent in xylem fibres.

      4. Xylem Parenchyma: The xylem parenchyma is composed of living cells which are thin-walled. The cell wall of xylem parenchyma is made up of cellulose. Xylem parenchyma stores food in the form of starch or fat, and some other substances like tannins. Parenchymatous cells facilitate the radial conduction of water in plants.

      5. Primary xylem is of two types, viz. protoxylem and metaxylem. Protoxylem are the first formed primary xylem elements, while the metaxylem are formed later.

      6. Endarch: The protoxylem lies towards the pith in stem and the metaxylem lies towards the periphery. This type of primary xylem is called endarch.

      7. Exarch: The protoxylem lies towards the periphery in roots and the metaxylem lies towards the pith. This type of primary xylem is called exarch.

      8. Transportation of water and minerals from roots to different plant parts is the main function of xylem. Xylem also provides mechanical strength.

    2. Phloem: The phloem; in angiosperms; is composed of four elements, viz. sieve tube, companion cells, phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. In case of gymnosperms, the phloem has albuminous cells and sieve cells. Sieve tubes and companion cells are absent in the phloem in gymnosperms.

      1. Sieve Tube: The sieve tube elements are long, tube-like structures. They are arranged longitudinally. The end walls of sieve tubes are perforated to form sieve plates. A mature sieve element has a peripheral cytoplasm and a large vacuole but no nucleus. The nucleus of the companion cell controls the function of sieve element.

      2. Companion Cells: These are specialized parenchymatous cells. The companion cells are closely associated with sieve tube elements. There is a common pit field in the common longitudinal wall between the sieve tube element and companion cell. These piths connect both of them. The companion cell helps in maintaining the pressure gradient in the sieve tubes.

      3. Phloem Parenchyma: The cells of phloem parenchyma are elongated, tapering cylindrical cells. The cells have dense cytoplasm and nucleus. Cell wall is composed of cellulose and has pits. Plasmodesmatal connections exist between the cells through these pits. Phloem parenchyma stores food and other substances like resin, latex and mucilage. Phloem parenchyma is usually absent in monocotyledonous.

      4. Phloem Fibre: These are also called bast fibres and are made up of sclerenchyma. Phloem fibres are usually absent in primary phloem but present in secondary phloem. The phloem fibres are much elongated, unbranched and have pointed, needle-like apices. Phloem fibres of jute, flax and hemp are commercially used.

      5. The primary phloem which is first formed consists of narrow sieve tubes and is called protophloem. The later formed phloem has bigger sieve tubes and is called metaphloem.

THE TISSUE SYSTEM

There are three types of tissue systems in plants, viz. epidermal tissue system, ground tissue system and vascular tissue system.

Epidermal Tissue System:

The outer covering of the plant body is formed of epidermal tissue system. The epidermal tissue system is composed of epidermal cells, stomata and edidermal appendages (trichomes and hairs).

  1. Epidermis: The outermost layer of the primary plant body is called epidermis. The epidermis is made up of elongated, compactly arranged cells. These cells form a continuous layer. There is usually a single layer of cells in the epidermis. The epidermal cells are parenchymatous. In these cells, a small amount of cytoplasm lines the cell wall and a large vacuole is present. The outer surface of epidermis is usually covered with a waxy cuticle. The cuticle prevents the loss of water. However, cuticle is absent in roots.

  2. Stomata: The minute pores present in the epidermis of leaves are called stomata. A stoma is composed of two guard cells; which are bean-shaped. The guard cells are dumbbell-shaped in grasses. The outer wall of guard cells is thin and the inner walls are highly thickened. Chloroplast is present in the guard cells. The guard cells regulate the opening and closing of stomata. A few specialized epidermal cells may be present near the guard cells. These specialized cells are called subsidiary cells. The stomatal aperture, guard cells and subsidiary cells together make the stomatal apparatus. Transpiration and exchange of gases are regulated by stomata.

  3. Hairs: The root hairs are unicellular elongations of the epidermal cells. They absorb water and minerals from the soil. The epidermal hairs on stem are called trichomes. The trichomes are usually multicellular. They can be branched or unbranched. They can be soft or stiff. The trichomes prevent water loss through transpiration. Some of the trichomes may be secretory.

The Ground Tissue System

  1. Tissues; other than epidermis and vascular bundles; make the ground tissue. The ground tissue is composed of simple tissues. Parenchyma is usually present in the cortex, pericycle, pith and medullary rays; in the primary stems and roots. The ground tissue in leaves is composed of thin-walled, chloroplast containing cells. This is called the mesophyll; in leaves.

The Vascular Tissue System

The vascular tissue system is composed of complex tissues.

  1. Vascular Tissue in Dicot Stem: In dicotyledonous stem, cambium is present between phloem and xylem. Because of the presence of cambium, the vascular bundle in dicot stem is capable of forming secondary xylem and phloem. Hence, these are called open vascular bundles.

  2. Vascular Tissue in Monocot Stem: Cambium is absent in monocot stem. Hence, secondary xylem or phloem is not formed in monocot stem.

  3. Radial Arrangement of vascular bundle: This type of arrangement is present in roots. In this case, xylem and phloem are arranged in an alternate manner on different radii.

  4. Conjoint arrangement of vascular bundle: This type of arrangement is present in stems and leaves. In this case, the xylem and phloem are on the same radius. In this case, the phloem is usually located on the outer side of xylem.

ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS AND MONOCOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS

Dicotyledonous Root

  1. Epidermis: The epidermis forms the outermost layer. Unicellular root hairs are present. The cortex is composed of many layers of thin-walled parenchyma; with intercellular spaces. The innermost layer of the cortex is called endodermis.

  2. Endodermis: This is composed of a single layer of barrel-shaped cells. Intercellular space is absent. The tangential as well as radial walls of endodermis have a deposition of water-impermeable, waxy material; called suberin; in the form of casparian strips. A few layers of thick-walled parenchymatous cells lie next to the endodermis. This is called pericycle. The cells of the pericycle initiate lateral roots and vascular cambium during secondary growth. The pith is small and inconspicuous.

  3. Vascular Bundle: There are usually two to four patches of xylem and phloem. A cambium ring develops between the xylem and phloem at a later stage. All tissues on the inner side of the endodermis constitute the stele.

Monocotyledonous Root

  1. The anatomy of monocot root is similar to dicot root in many aspects. Epidermis, cortex, endodermis, pericycle, vascular bundles and pith are present. There are usually more than six xylem bundles in the monocot root. Pith is large and well developed. Secondary growth does not happen in monocot roots.

Dicotyledonous Stem

  1. Epidermis : The epidermis is covered with a thin layer of cuticle. Trichomes and stomata may be present.

  2. Cortex: The cortex is made up of the multiple layers of cells between epidermis and pericycle. There are three sub-zones in the cortex. The outer sub-zone is called hypodermis. The hypodermis is composed of a few layers of collenchyma. The middle layer is composed of thin-walled parenchyma with distinct intercellular spaces. The innermost layer is called endodermis.

  3. Endodermis: The cells are rich in starch grains and hence this layer is also called the starch sheath. Pericycle is present on the inner side of endodermis and above the phloem. The pericycle is in the form of semi-lunar patches of sclerenchyma.

  4. Medullary Rays: Layers of radially placed parenchyma between the vascular bundles are called medullary rays.

  5. Vascular Bundle: A large number of vascular bundles are arranged in a ring. It is important to remember that the ring-like arrangement of vascular bundles is the characteristic of dicot stem. Each vascular bundle is conjoint, open. Protoxylem is endarch. The pith is composed of rounded parenchymatous cells; with large intercellular spaces.

Monocotyledonous Stem

  1. The hypodermis in a monocot stem is made up of sclerenchyma. A large number of vascular bundles are scattered. Each vascular bundle is surrounded by a sclerenchymatous bundle sheath. Ground tissue is distinct and is made up of parenchyma. Vascular bundles are conjoint and closed. Peripheral vascular bundles are usually smaller than the centrally located vascular bundles. Phloem parenchyma is absent. Water-containing cavities are present within the vascular bundles.

Dorsiventral (Dicotyledonous) Leaf

There are three main parts in the leaf lamina of a dorsiventral leaf, viz. epidermis, mesophyll and vascular system.

  1. Epidermis: The epidermis covers both the upper and lower surfaces. The upper epidermis is called adaxial epidermis, while the lower one is called abaxial epidermis. Cuticle is distinct. A higher number of stomata are present on the abaxial epidermis than on the adaxial epidermis. Stomata may be absent also in the adaxial epidermis.

  2. Mesophyll: The tissue between the two epidermises is called mesophyll. The mesophyll is composed of parenchyma and contains chlorophyll. There are two types of cells in the mesophyll, viz. palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma. The palisade parenchyma is placed adaxially. It is made up of elongated cells; which are arranged vertically and parallel to each other. The spongy parenchyma is situated below the palisade parenchyma and extends to the lower epidermis. There are numerous large spaces and air cavities between the cells of spongy parenchyma.

  3. Vascular Bundle: The vascular bundles can be seen in the veins and the midrib. Vascular bundles are surrounded by a layer of thick-walled bundle sheath cells. Vascular bundles are of different sizes because of reticulate venation.

Isobilateral (Monocotyledonous) Leaf

  1. The anatomy of isobilateral leaf is similar to that of dorsiventral leaf in many aspects. Stomata are present on both the surfaces of an isobilateral leaf. The mesophyll is not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.

  2. Certain adaxial epidermal cells; along the veins in grasses; are modified into large, empty, colourless cells. These are called bulliform cells. When the bulliform cells absorb water and become turgid, the leaf surface is exposed. When the bulliform cells become flaccid, the leaves curl inwards to minimize water loss.

  3. Vascular bundles are of similar size, because of parallel venation. However, the vascular bundle of the main vein is somewhat bigger.

SECONDARY GROWTH

  1. Primary Growth: The growth in length of stem and roots is called primary growth. Primary growth happens because of activities in the apical meristem.

  2. Secondary Growth: The increase in girth is called secondary growth. The tissues which are involved in secondary growth are; the two lateral meristems (vascular cambium and cork cambium).

Vascular Cambium:

  1. The vascular cambium is responsible for cutting off vascular tissues. In case of young stem; it is present in patches as a single layer between the xylem and phloem. It forms a complete ring at a later stage.

  2. In dicot stems, the cambium which is present between primary xylem and primary phloem is called intrafascicular cambium. The cells of medullary rays near these intrafascicular cambium become meristematic and form interfascicular cambium. This leads to the formation of a continuous ring of cambium.

  3. Activity of Cambial Ring: The cambial ring becomes active and starts cutting off new cells; both on the inner and the outer sides. The cells which are cut off towards the pith mature into secondary xylem. The cells which are cut off towards the periphery mature into secondary phloem. The cambium is usually more active on the inner side than on the outer side. Hence, a large number of secondary xylem is produced compared to the secondary phloem. The secondary xylem; thus produced soon forms a compact mass.

  4. Due to continued formation and accumulation of secondary xylem, the primary and secondary phloems gradually get crushed. But the primary xylem more or less remains intact, in or around the centre. At some places, a narrow band of parenchyma is formed by the cambium. This band of parenchyma passes through the secondary xylem and secondary phloem in radial directions. These are called secondary medullary rays.

Spring wood and autumn wood:

  1. Various physiological and environmental factors control the activity of cambium. Climatic conditions are not uniform through the year; in temperate regions. Cambium is very active during the spring season, while it is less active during the winters. Hence, during spring; a large number of xylem elements are formed which have wider vessels. During winter, fewer xylem elements are formed which have narrow vessels. The wood formed during summer is called spring wood or early wood, while the wood formed during winter is called autumn wood or late wood.

  2. Spring wood is lighter in colour and has a lower density. The autumn wood is darker in colour and has a higher density.

  3. The two kinds of wood appear as alternate concentric rings in transverse section of a trunk or branch of a tree. These are called annual rings and can provide rough estimate of the age of the tree.

Heartwood and sapwood:

  1. In old trees, the greater part of secondary xylem is dark brown. This happens because of deposition of organic compounds; like tannins, resins, oils, gums, aromatic substances and essential oils in the innermost layers of the stem. Due to the presence of these substances, the wood becomes hard, durable and resistant to attacks by microorganisms and insect. This region is composed of dead elements with highly lignified walls. The wood in this region is called heartwood. The heartwood does not conduct water, but gives mechanical support to the stem. The peripheral region of the secondary xylem is lighter in colour. This is known as sapwood. Conduction of water and minerals takes place through sapwood.

  2. Cork Cambium: When the girth of the stem increases due to secondary growth, the outer cortical and epidermal layers get broken. These layers need to be replaced by new protective layers. To fulfill this need, a meristematic tissue develops in the cortex region. This meristematic tissue is called cork cambium or phellogen.

  3. Phellogen is composed of a couple of layers. This is made up of narrow, thin-walled and nearly rectangular cells.

  4. The phellogen cuts off cells on both sides. The outer cells differentiate into cork or phellem. The inner cells differentiate into secondary cortex or phelloderm. Cork is impervious to water due to suberin deposition in the cell wall. The cells of secondary cortex are parenchymatous. Phellogen, phellem and phelloderm are collectively called periderm.

  5. Due to activity of the cork cambium, pressure builds up on the remaining layers which are peripheral to phellogen. These layers finally die and slough off.

  6. Bark: All tissues which lie exterior to the vascular cambium are called bark; in common language. Bark formed early in the season is called soft bark, while one formed late in the season is called hard bark.

  7. Lenticels: The phellogen cuts off closely arranged parenchymatous cells on the outer side instead of cork cells. This happens at certain regions. These parenchymatous cells soon rupture the epidermis. This leads to the formation of lens-shaped openings called lenticels. Lenticels permit exchange of gases. Lenticels are usually found in woody trees.

Secondary Growth in Roots

  1. The vascular cambium of the dicot root is completely secondary in origin. It originates from the tissue which is located just below the phloem bundles. A portion of pericycle tissue; above the protoxylem; forms a complete and continuous wavy ring. It subsequently becomes circular. Rest of the steps are similar as in dicot stem.

  2. Secondary growth takes place in stems and roots of gymnosperms. But secondary growth does not happen in monocotyledonous.

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