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4. Animal Kingdom 1

REVISION NOTES

 

CLASS 11 BIOLOGY

UNIT I – DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLD

Chapter 1 – The Living World 

Chapter 2 – Biological Classification 

Chapter 3 – Plant Kingdom 

Chapter 4 – Animal Kingdom 

UNIT II – STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS

Chapter 5 – Morphology of Flowering Plants 

Chapter 6 – Anatomy of Flowering Plants 

Chapter 7 – Structural Organisation in Animals 

UNIT III – CELL : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS

 

Chapter 8 – Cell: The Unit of Life 

Chapter 9 – Bio-Molecules 

Chapter 10 – Cell Cycle and Cell Division 

UNIT IV – PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 

Chapter 11 – Transport in Plants 

Chapter 12 – Mineral Nutrition 

Chapter 13 – Photosynthesis in higher plants 

Chapter 14 – Respiration in Plants 

Chapter 15 – Plant Growth and Development 

UNIT V – HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 

Chapter 16 – Digestion And Absorption 

Chapter 17 – Breathing and Exchange of Gases 

Chapter 18 – Body fluids and circulation 

Chapter 19 – Excretory Products and their Elimination 

Chapter 20 – Locomotion and Movement 

Chapter 21 – Neural Control and Coordination 

Chapter 22 – Chemical Coordination and Integration 

CLASS 12 BIOLOGY

Unit-VI Reproduction
  

Chapter 1 : Reproduction in Organisms 

Chapter 2 : Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants 

Chapter 3 : Human Reproduction 

Chapter 4 : Reproductive Health 

Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution

Chapter 5 : Principles of Inheritance and Variation 

Chapter 6 : Molecular Basis of Inheritance 

Chapter 7 : Evolution 

Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter 8 : Human Health and Disease 

Chapter 9 : Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 

Chapter 10 : Microbes in Human Welfare 

Unit-IX Biotechnology  

Chapter 11 : Biotechnology Principles and Processes 

Chapter 12 : Biotechnology and its Applications 

Unit-X Ecology and Environment 

Chapter 13 : Organisms and Populations 

Chapter 14 : Ecosystem 

Chapter 15 : Biodiversity and Conservation 

Chapter 16 : Environmental Issues 

​Basis Of Classification

Organization of Animal Body

  1. Levels of organization

    • cellular organization:

    • Body is formed of loosely arranged cell aggregates, but the cells show no coordination to form tissues. Division of labor occurs at cellular level.

    • Tissue organization.

    • Cells which coordinate for the specific function and form four types of tissues.

    • Organ level organization.

    • Tissues coordinate to form organs.

    • Organ-system organization.

    • Organs coordinate to form systems

  2. Body plan

    • Cell aggregate plan: aggregate of cells.

    • Blind sac plan. Organ system organization but there is incomplete alimentary canal.

    • Tube-with in-a-tube plan. Organ-system organization and is with complete alimentary canal. Its is again of two types.

      • Protostomous. Blastopore of archenteron of gastrula larva forms mouth.

      • Deuterostomous. Blastopore of gastrula forms anus

  3. Symmetry

    • Asymmetrical: Body cannot be divided in two similar parts from any direction.

    • Symmetrical: Body can be divided in two similar parts which are mirror images of each other by one or more planes. Basis of planes of division, symmetry in animals is of three types.

    • Spherical: By any plane passing through the centre of body.  

    • Radial symmetry: Body can be divided in two similar part by any plane along central axis of body.

    • Bilateral Symmetry: By only one plane along longitudinal axis of body.

  4. Germ layers

    • Layers of gastrula from which all the body organs are formed, are called germ layers. Animals are divided into categories:

    • Diploblastic animals. With three germ layers outer ectoderm middle mesoderm and inner endoderm.

    • Triploblastic animals with three germ layers, outer ectoderm, middle mesoderm and inner endoderm.

  5. Cephalization

    • Nervous System and Sense organs (Head) develops toward anterior end

  6. Segmentation

    • Serial repetition of similar parts along the length of an animal.

    • Unsegmented body found in Platyhelminthes and roundworms.

    • Pseudo segmented body in tapeworms. In them, the body is made up of specialized segments called proglottids. Each proglottid is special in possessing its own reproductive machinery. Process of formation of new segments is called strobilisation.

    • Metameric segmentation seen in higher invertebrates (Annelida onwards) and chordates.

      • Internal Metamerism

      • External metamerism

      • Complete metamerism 

  7. Coelom (body cavity) Space between body wall and gut wall

    • Acoelomates: Among invertebrates up to flatworms there is no coelom.

    • Pseudocoelomate: Only partly lined by the tissues derived from mesoderm. Mesodermal pouches are present between ectoderm and endoderm.

    • Eucoelomates: Annelids to mammals, body cavity is present between mesodermal peritoneal layers. There is parietal peritoneum on outer side and visceral peritoneum on inner side

      • Schizocoelic

      • Enterocoelic

    • Haemocoelomates: Arthropods and mollusks, true coelom is reduced with blood and is called haemocoel.

  8. Respiratory system​

    • Body surface

      • Sponges ctenophores and coelenterates (Hydra)

    • branchial respiration-Gills

      • Crustaceans (prawn), Cartilage and bony fishes.

    • Cutaneous respiration-Skin

      • Annelids (earthworm) and amphibians (frog)

    • Tracheal respiration-Tracheae (ectodermal tubes)

      • Insects (cockroach). Centipedes, millipedes.

    • Pulmonary respiration-Lungs.

      • Most of tetrapods.

    • Book lung respiration-Book lungs.

      • Arachnids (spiders and scorpions).

    • Book gill respiration-Book gills.

      • Limulus (king-crab)

    • Cloacal respiration-Cloaca

      • Some turtles

  9. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

    • Open circulatory system:

      • Blood comes out of blood vessels in spaces called sinuses. It is found in arthropods, most of molluscs and leeches

    • Closed circulatory system:

      • In this type blood remains inside the blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries) it is found in most of annelids and all vertebrates.

    • In earthworm blood is red due to an iron containing erythrocruorin present in plasma. Green in some polychaetes due to green colored pigment chlorocruorin. Vertebrates, blood is red due to haemoglobin

    • Molluscs blood is blue colored due to copper containing haemocyanin in plasma.

    • Insects, blood colourless (no pigment) and is called haemolymph.

  10. EXCRETORY SYSTEM

    • Expels the nitrogenous waste (excretion) out of body to maintain homeostasis. Perform two functions: excretion and osmoregulation. Three types:

    • Ammonotelism When main nitrogenous waste is NH3 aquatic animals e.g., sponges, coelenterates ctenophores, crustaceans, echinoderms and bonny fishes

    • Ureotelism Nitrogenous waste is urea and the animals are called ureotelic animals, amphibians, mammals and cartilage fishes.

    • Uricotelism Nitrogenous waste is uric acid and animals are called uricotelic animals. Found in reptiles, birds and insects.

    • Excretory organs found in different groups of animals.

      • Porifera and coelenterate

        • By diffusion through body surface

      • Platyhelminthes (flatworms)

        • Protonephridia (flame cells)

      • Aschelminthes (round worms)

        • Excretory canals (Renett cell)

      • Annelids (segmental worms )

        • Nephridia

      • Crustaceans (e.g. prawn)

        • Antennary or green glands

      • Arachnids (e.g. scorpion)

        • Coxal glands and malpighian tubules ( in some spiders)

      • Insects, centipedes and millipedes

        • Malpighian tubules and urate cells.

      • Molluscs

        • Metanephridia

      • Vertebrates

        • Kidneys

  11. NERVOUS SYSTEM

    • Absent from sponges.

    • Type of nervous system found in different animal groups.

    • Animal group, Type of nervous system

      • Coelenterates

        • Diffuse type

      • Flatworms and round worm

        • Ladder type

      • Annelids

        • Formed of circumpharyngeal nerve ring and ventral solid and ganglionated nerve cord.

      • Arthropods

        • Formed of a circumoesphageal nerve ring and a double, ventral solid and ganglionated nerve cord,

      • Molluscs

        • Few ganglia interconnected by some commissures and connectives.

      • Vertebrates

        • Anterior broader brain and posterior longer and narrow spinal cord .CNS is dorsal hollow and non ganglionated.​

  12. SKELETON

    • Structure of body which gives shape, support and protection to the body

    • Endoskeleton: inside the body formed of living structure e.g. Cartilages and bones.

    • Exoskeleton: outside body formed of dead structured e.g. chitinous plates called sclerites is arthropods; calcareous shell in molluscs; epidermal scales in reptiles; epidermal feather in birds; epidermal hair, nails, claws horns and hoofs in mammals.

  13. BODY TEMPERATURE

    1. Homeothermal (warm blooded or endothermic animals): In this body temperature is constant and does not change with the change in environmental temperature e.g. birds and mammals.

    2. Poikilothermal cold blooded or ectothermic animals), in this body temperature is not constant and changes with change in environmental temperature. E.g. amphibians and lizards.

  14. Notochord

    • Solid and unjointed mesodermal rod of vacuolated cells present on dorsal side between alimentary canal and nervous system in some animals. It acts as primary axial skeleton. Animals are divided into two categories

    • Non chordates: animals lack notochord e.g. poriferans to hemichordates.

    • Chordates: Possess notochord at least in some stages of life cycle e.g. vertebrates.

  15. Reproduction

    • Asexual methods:

      • budding (parent developing external or internal outgrowths called buds e.g. hydra) and fragmentation.

    • Sexual reproduction:

      • (Which involved formation and fusion of gametes). Gametes are the sex cells. These are formed in the sex organs called gonads. Gonads are called testes in male and ovaries in female while sex cells of male and female are called sperms and ova respectively. Two types of gonads are present in different animals and are called unisexual or dioecious.

      • Both types of gonads (testes and ovaries) are present in same animal and are called bisexual or monoecious or hermaphrodite earthworm, leech, Taenia, etc.

      • Fusion of sperm and ovum is called fertilization while fusion product is called zygote Fertilization may be external (echinoderms, bony fishes and amphibians) or internal.

      • In unisexual animals, sperms and ova are derived from different animals, called cross fertilization,

      • In some bisexual animals, sperm and ovum of same animal fuse called self-fertilization. But in some bisexual animals cross fertilization occurs due to two conditions: protandrous and protogynous.

      • Birth

    • Oviparity

      • Female lays eggs

      • Fertilization may be external or internal

      • Egg is generally yolky and larges sized,

      • Placenta is not formed, e.g. all birds’ amphibians, most of fishes and insects.

      • Indirect and metamorphosis

    • Viviparity

      • Give birth to young ones,Always internal,Egg is small sized and generally non- yolky.

      • Development occurs outside female,

      • Always inside female.Placenta is formed e.g. most of mammals.

      • Development Direct

CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS

PHYLUM – PORIFERA

 

  1. These are also known as sponges. They are usually found in marine habitat. Most of the poriferans are asymmetrical. Cellular level

  2. organization is present in these animals. ‘Pores on the body’ is the main feature of these animals.

  3. Water Transport System in Sponges: Water transport system is a distinguishing feature of sponges. Water enters the body through

  4. minute pores on the body wall. Water enters into a central cavity (spongocoel) and then goes out through the osculum. The water

  5. transport system helps in gathering food, in exchange of gases and in excretion. The spongocoel and canals are lined by collar cells or choanocytes. Digestion is intracellular. A skeleton made up of spicules or sponging fibres supports the body.

  6. Reproduction: These are hermaphrodite animals, i.e. sexes are not separate. While sexual reproduction is by gamete formation, asexual reproduction is by fragmentation. Fertilization is internal and

  7. development is indirect.

PHYLUM – COELENTERATA (CNIDARIA):

 

  1. These are aquatic animals and most of them live in marine habitat. They can be sessile or free-swimming. The body is radially symmetrical. Body is composed of a cavity which has only one opening. Stinging capsules or nematocytes are present on the tentacles. Cnidoblasts are used for anchorage, defense and for capturing the prey.

  2. Tissue level organization is present in cnidarians. They are diploblastic animals. Digestion is extracellular and intracellular. Some of the cnidarians have a skeleton composed of calcium carbonate, e.g. corals.

  3. There are two basic body forms in the cnidarians, viz. polyp and medusa. Polyp is sessile and cylindrical form, e.g. Hydra, Adamsia, etc. Medussa is umbrella-shaped and free-swimming, e.g. Aurelia (Jelly

  4. Fish). Some cnidarians exist in both forms and exhibit alternation of generations, i.e. metagenesis. In this case, the polyp produces the medusa asexually and the medusa produces the polyp sexually.

  5. Common Examples: Physalia (Portuguese man-of-war), Adamsia (Sea anemone), Pennatula (Sea-pen), Gorgonia (Sea-fan) and Meandrina (Brain coral).

PHYLUM – CTENOPHORA

 

  1. These are commonly known as sea walnuts or comb jellies. These are exclusively marine animals. The body is radially symmetrical and diploblastic. Tissue level organization is present. There are eight eternal

  2. rows of ciliated comb plates on the body. These rows help in locomotion. Digestion is both extracellular and intracellular. Bioluminescence is well-developed in ctenophores.

  3. Reproduction: These are hermaphrodite animals. Reproduction is only  through sexual means. Fertilisation is external and development is indirect.

  4. Common Examples: Pleurobrachia and Ctenoplana.

PHYLUM – PLATYHELMINTHES

 

 

  1. Habit and Habitat: These are also called flatworms because of dorso-ventrally flattened body. Most of the flatworms live as

  2. endoparasites in animals; including human bodies. They are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic and acoelomate animals. Organ level organization is present in them.

  3. Hooks and suckers are present in the parasitic forms. Some of the flatworms absorb nutrients from the host directly through their body surface. Osmoregulation and excretion are carried on by specialized

  4. cells called flame cells.

  5. Reproduction: Flatworms are hermaphrodite animals. Fertilization is internal and development is indirect. Some members have the ability for regeneration, e.g. planaria.

  6. Common Examples: Taenia solium (Tapeworm), Fasciola (Liverfluke)

​PHYLUM – ASCHELMINTHES

 

  1. Habit and Habitat: These are also called roundworms because their body appears circular in cross-section. They can be free living, aquatic and terrestrial. Some of them are parasitic in plants and animals.

  2. Organ system level of organization is present. The roundworms are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic and pseudocoelomate.

  3. Digestive System: Alimentary canal is complete. Well developed muscular pharynx is present. There is an excretory tube to remove

  4. wastes through excretory pore.

  5. Reproduction: The roundworms are dioecious, i.e. sexes are separate.

  6. Females are usually longer than males. Fertilization is internal and

  7. development can be direct or indirect.

  8. Common Examples:- Ascaris (Round Worm), Wuchereria (Filaria worm), Ancylostoma (Hookworm).

PHYLUM – ANNELIDA

 

  1. Habit and Habitat: The annelids are aquatic or terrestrial. The aquatic annelids are found in marine and freshwater habitats. Most of them are free-living, while some can be parasitic.

  2. Organ system level organization is present.

  3. Body is bilaterally symmetrical, coelomate and triploblastic.

  4. The body is metamerically symmetrical. The body is distinctly divided into segments or metameres.

  5. Longitudinal and circular muscles are present to help in locomotion.

  6. Aquatic annelida possess lateral appendages (parapodia) which facilitates swimming, e.g. Nereis. Closed circulatory system is present.

  7. Nephridia are present for excretion and osmoregulation. The neural system is composed of paired ganglia which are connected by lateral nerves to a double ventral nerve cord.

  8. Reproduction: Earthworms and leeches are hermaphrodite, while nereis is dioecious.

  9. Common Examples:- Nereis, Pheretima (Earthworm) and Hirudinaria (Blood sucking leech).

PHYLUM – ARTHROPODA

 

  1. The presence of joint appendages is the reason for name arthropoda.

  2. This is the largest phylum of Animalia and over two-thirds of all known species on the earth are arthropods.

  3. Organ system level of organization is present.

  4. Body is bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, segmented and coelomate.

  5. Structure: The body consists of head, thorax and abdomen. Body is covered with exoskeleton made up of chitin.

  6. Respiration is carried out by gills, book gills, book lungs or tracheal system.

  7. Open circulatory system is present. Sensory organs; like antennae, eyes, statocysts (balance organs) are present. Eyes can be compound or simple.

  8. Malpighian tubules are the excretory organs.

  9. Reproduction: Most of the arthropods are dioecious. Fertilisation is usually internal and development can be direct or indirect. Most of them are oviparous.

  10. Common Examples:- Economically important insects – Apis (Honey bee), Bombyx (Silkworm), Laccifer (Lac insect) Vectors – Anopheles, Culex and Aedes (Mosquitoes) Gregarious pest – Locusta (Locust) Living fossil – Limulus (King crab).

PHYLUM – MOLLUSCA

 

  1. Mollusca is the second largest phylum of Animalia. They are terrestrial or aquatic. The aquatic molluscs live in marine or freshwater habitats.

  2. Organ system level organization is present.

  3. Body is bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic and coelomate.

  4. The body is covered by a shell which is made up of calcium carbonate.

  5. Body is unsegmented with a distinct head, muscular foot and visceral hump. A mantle is formed over the visceral hump by a soft and spongy layer of skin. The space between the hump and the mantle is called mantle cavity.

  6. Feather-like gills are present in the mantle cavity. The gills facilitate respiration and excretion. Sensory tentacles are present in the anterior head region. File-like rasping organ; called radula is present in the mouth for feeding.

  7. Reproduction: These are usually dioecious and oviparous. Development is indirect.

  8. Common Examples:- Pila (Apple snail), Pinctada (Pearl oyster), Sepia (Cuttlefish), Loligo (Squid), Octopus (Devil fish), Aplysia (Seahare), Dentalium (Tusk shell) and Chaetopleura (Chiton).

PHYLUM – ECHINODERMATA

 

  1. Ehinodermates have an endoskeleton made up of calcareous ossicles.

  2. Due to this, the body is covered with spines. These are marine animals.

  3. Organ system level organization is present.

  4. Adults are radially symmetrical but larvae are bilaterally symmetrical.

  5. Body is triploblastic and coelomate.

  6. Digesive system is complete. Mouth is present on the ventral side and anus is present on the dorsal side.

  7. Water canal system is the most distinctive feature of echinoderms. The water canal system helps in locomotion, capture and transport of food and respiration. Excretory system is absent.

  8. Reproduction: These are dioecious animals. Fertilisation is usually external. Development is indirect. Larvae are free-swimming.

  9. Common Examples:- Asterias (Star fish), Echinus (Sea urchin), Antedon (Sea lily), Cucumaria (Sea cucumber) and Ophiura (Brittle star).

 

PHYLUM – HEMICHORDATA

 

  1. This phylum has a small group of animals which look like worms.

  2. Organ system level organization is present. Body is bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic and coelomate. The body is cylindrical and consists and anterior proboscis, a collar and a long trunk.

  3. Open circulatory system is present. Gills are present for respiration.

  4. Proboscis gland is the excretory organ.

  5. Reproduction: These are dioecious animals. Fertilisation is external and development is indirect.

  6. Common Examples:- Balanoglossus and Saccoglossus.

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