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 Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

Online Biology Class 

  • Following is the list of topics that are covered during online biology classes for NEET preparation.

  • After completion of all the topics of the chapter, MCQs based on NEET Pattern questions are discussed.

  • Doubts during the class are also cleared. You can also post your doubts and we will promptly answer it.

33.1 Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology

  • biotechnology

  • Old biotechnology

  • Modern biotechnology

  • Definition

  • principles of biotechnology

  • Two main techniques of modern biotechnology

  • Genetic engineering

  • Chemical engineering

  • Conceptual development of principles of genetic engineering

  • Genetic engineering is based on 2 main discoveries

  • Role of Paulberg

  • Technique of genetic engineering includes

  • Construction of first artificial recombinant DNA Molecule

  • 3 basic steps in creating GMO or transgenic organism

  • tools of recombinant DNA technology

  • enzymes

  • Lysing enzymes

  • Cleaving enzyme

  • Exonuclease

  • Endonuclease

  • Restriction endonuclease

  • Synthesizing enzymes

  • Joining enzymes

  • Alkaline phosphatase

  • restriction endonuclease

  • Type I

  • Type II

  • Type III

  • ligase

  • alkaline phosphatase (ap)

  • synthesizing enzymes

  • reverse transcriptase

  • DNA polymerase

  • nomenclature

  • functioning of RE

  • palindromic Nucleotide Sequence

  • agarose gel electrophoresis

33.2 Cloning Vectors

  • cloning vectors/vehicle dna/carrier dna

  • plasmid vectors

  • pBR322

  • features required to facilitate cloning inot a vector

  • Origin of replication (ori)

  • Selectable marker

  • Cloning site (recognition sites)

  • PUC8

  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens (in plants)

  • retrovirus in Animals

  • Shuttle vector in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes

  • Bacteriophage vector

  • Lambda Phage Vector

  • M13 pahge

  • Some other cloning vectors

  • Cosmid

  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC vectors)

  • Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC) vectors

  • Phagemid vector

  • Animal and Plant viral vectors

  • Transposons as Vectors

  • Shuttle vectors

  • Passenger DNA

  • cDNA or copy DNA or complementary DNA

  • synthetic DNA

33.3 Competent Host

  • competent host (for transformation with rDNA)

  • DNA Mediated Gene Transfer (Vector Mediated Gene Transfer)

  • Direct or Vector less Gene Transfer

  • Micro Injection

  • Electroporation

  • CHEMICAL Mediated Gene Transfer

  • Biolistic Method/Gene Gun Method

33.4 Process of Recombinant DNA Technology

  • process of rDNA technology

  • Isolation of Genetic Material, DNA

  • Cutting of DNA at specific locations

  • Amplification of gene of interest, using PCR

  • Working Mechanism of PCR

  • Denaturation

  • Annealing

  • Extension (polymerization)

  • Application of PCR

  • Preparation and insertion of recombinant DNA int the host cell/organisms

333.5 Obtaining foreign Gene Products

  • obtaining the foreign gene products

  • Bioreactors (fermenters)

  • Batch culture

  • Continuous culture

  • Types of bioreactors

  • Simple stirred tank bioreactor and Sparged stirred tank bioreactor

  • downstream processing

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