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 Breathing and Exchange of Gases

Online Biology Class 

  • Following is the list of topics that are covered during online biology classes for NEET preparation.

  • After completion of all the topics of the chapter, MCQs based on NEET Pattern questions are discussed.

  • Doubts during the class are also cleared. You can also post your doubts and we will promptly answer it.

17.1 Energy Requirements

  • energy

  • what is respiration

  • types and phases of respiration

  • aerobic respiration

  • direct respiration

  • indirect respiration

  • phases of respiration

  • anaerobic respiration

17.2 Introduction

  • respiration versus burning

  • photosynthesis versus respiration

  • respiratory structure for the exchange of gases

  • adaptations for gas exchange

  • functions of respiration

17.3 Human Respiratory System

  • Respiratory tracts/passage

  • External nares (nostrils)-

  • Nasal chambers-

  • Vestibular region

  • Respiratory region

  • Olfactory region

  • Nasal conchae 

  • Paranasal sinuses

  • Internal nares (Choanae)- leads to nasal pharynx

  • Naso-Pharynx- 

  • Larynx

  •  thyroid cartilage

  • Cricoid Cartilage

  • Arytenoid cartilage

  • Corniculate

  • cuneiform

  • epiglottis

  • Trachea

  • bronchi

  • alveoli

  • surfactants

  • Respiratory organs/lungs

17.4 Breathing

  • Inspiration/inhalation

  • Diaphragm-

  • External intercostal muscles

  • Abdominal muscles

  • Expiration/exhalation

  • Diaphragm

  • External intercostal muscles

  • Abdominal and internal intercostal muscles

  • During forceful expiration strength of expiration increased

  • Respiratory rate

  • Advantage of negative pressure breathing

17.5 Pulmonary Air Volumes & Capacities

  • Tidal volume (TV)

  • Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

  • Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

  • Residual volume (RV)

  •  Functional residual volume (FRC)

  • Inspiratory capacity (IC)

  • Expiratory Capacity (EC)

  • Vital capacity (VC) 

  • Total lung capacity (TLC)

  • Respiratory quotient (RQ)

17.6 Exchange of Gases

  • exchange of gases

17.7 Oxygen Transport

  • Factors affecting rate of diffusion

  • Oxygen transport

  • Oxygen-Dissociation Curve

  • Factors that affect curve

17.8 CO2 Transport

  • CO2 Transport

17.9 Regulation of Breathing

  • Nervous control

  • Medullary respiratory centre

  • Dorsal respiratory Group (DRG)

  • Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG)

  • Pons Respiratory Centres

  • Pneumotaxic centre

  • Apneustic Centre

  • Chemical control

17.10 Disorders of Breathing

  • anoxia

  • Hypoxia / oxygen shortage in tissues

  • Artificial hypoxia

  • Anaemic hypoxia

  • Cytotoxic hypoxia

  • Stagnant hypoxia

  • Asphyxia/suffocation

  • Bad cold

  • Rhinitis 

  • Sinusitis 

  • Pharyngitis 

  • Laryngitis 

  • Bronchitis inflammation of bronchi

  • Bronchial asthma

  • Pneumonia

  • Emphysema

  • Occupational respiratory disorders

  • Carbon monoxide poisoning

  • Pleurisy

  • Hay fever

  • Respiratory diseases in divers

  • Atelectasis

  • Mountain sickness

  • Cyanosis

  • Eupnea

  • Hypopnea

  • Hyperpnea

  • Apnea

  • Dyspnea

  • orthopnea

17.11 MCQs Discussions​

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