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 Environmental Issues Online Biology Class 

  • Following is the list of topics that are covered during online biology classes for NEET preparation.

  • After completion of all the topics of the chapter, MCQs based on NEET Pattern questions are discussed.

  • Doubts during the class are also cleared. You can also post your doubts and we will promptly answer it.

38.1 Pollution

  • Basic cause of pollution-.

38.2 Pollutants

  • Classification of Pollutants

  • Persistence-persist in environment after release

  • Primary pollutants

  • Secondary pollutants

  • Existence: according to existence in nature

  • Quantitative pollutants

  • Qualitative pollutants

  • Natural disposal

  • Biodegradable pollutants: quickly degraded

  • Non biodegradable pollutants:

  • Pollution source on the basis of emission of pollutants

  • Point source:  

  • Line or mobile source

  • Area source:  instudtrial estates and mining

  • Diffuse sources:

  • Types of pollution

  • Pollution is of 5 main types

  • Atmospheric or air pollution

  • Hydrospheric or water pollution

  • Lithospheric or land pollution

  • Radioactive pollution

  • Noise or sound pollution

38.3 Air Pollution

  • CAUSES

  • Human activities: industrialization, urbanisation etc

  • Nature:.

  • Sources of air pollution: fossil fuels and industries

  • Types of air pollution

  • Point or stationary sources:

  • Line or mobile sources:  automobiles

  • Area sources: towns and cities

38.4 Gaseous pollutants​

  • Oxides of carbon

  • Carbon monoxide

  • Carbon dioxide

  • Oxides of nitrogen

  • Oxides of sulphur

  • Hydrocarbons

38.5 Photochemical oxidants

  • PAN

  • Ozone

  • Smog

  • Classical smog

  • Photochemical smog

  • Aldehydes

  • Florides

38.6 Particulate pollutants

  • Sources

  • Types

  • Dusts

  • Effects

  • Mists

  • Aerosols

  • CFC

  • Nitrogen and sulphur oxides

  • PCBs

  • Tobacco smoke

  • Pollen, spores, cysts and bacteria

  • Radioactive pollutants

38.7 Air Pollution Control

  • Control of air pollution: 3 types of steps can be taken

  • Separation of pollutants

  • Growing trees

  • Use of good quality fuel

  • Control of particulate matter

  • Gravity settling tanks

  • Bag filters  

  • Electrostatic precipitator

  • Cyclonic separators

  • Trajectory separators

  • Catalytic converters

  • Control of gaseous pollutants

  • Combution method

  • Absorption method

  • Adsorption technique

  • Avoidance of pollutants

  • Conversion of pollutants

  • Controlling vehicular air pollution in delhi: a case study

  • New government auto fuel policy

38.8 Acid Rain

  • Wet deposition: rain, snow and fog

  • Dry deposition

38.9 Water Pollution

  • Physical pollutants:  heat and oil spills

  • Chemical pollutant:.

  • Biological pollutants: pathogens

38.10 Sources of Water Pollution

  • Natural sources

  • Anthropogenic

38.11 Surface(Inland) Water Pollution

  • Types of sources of water pollution

  • Point source:  municipal and industrial discharge pipes

  • Diffusion source

  • Types of water pollutants

  • Organic wastes(community waste waters)

  • Biodegradation

  • Determination of quality of waste water by BOD

  • Eutrophication

  • Biomagnification

  • Radioactive wastes

  • Solid particles

  • Heat

38.12 Thermal Pollution

  • Effects

  • Control

  • Cooling ponds

  • Spray towers

  • Underground Water Pollution

  • Marine Water Pollution

38.13 Control of Water Pollution

  • Integrated waste water management

  • Natural Depollution

38.14 Treatment of Waste Water

  • Treatment of sewage: 3 steps

  • Primary treatment

  • Secondary treatment:2 ways

  • Anoxic secondary water treatment

  • Aerobic secondary water treatment: 2 Ways

  • Trickling filter method

  • Activated sludge method

  • Tertiary treatment

  • Treatment of Industrial Effluents

38.15 Soil and Landscape Pollution

  • Types of soil pollutants (sources of soil pollution)

  • Chemicals- like industrial waste

  • Pesticides-from crops

  • Fertilisers and manures

  • Radioactive materials-from mining and uranium processing

  • Discarded materials of domestic wastes

  • Effects of soil pollution

38.16 Types of Soil Pollution

  • Positive soil pollution

  • Salination of soil

  • Poor drainage

  • Capillary action

  • Saline irrigation water

  • Use of alkaline fertilizers

  • Wind-blown salts

  • Parent rock

  • Negative soil pollution

  • Reduction in mineral contents

  • Soil erosion

  • Sand shifting

  • Desertification

38.17 Control of Soil and Landscape Pollution

  • Recycling the waste

  • Agricultural wastes-converted into papers and board

  • Waste paper- new papers

  • Jute-hardboard

  • Seeds

  • Cattle dung-gobar gas plants

  • Composting

  • Organic acids

  • Water 

  • Metals

  • Glass and plastics

  • Land fills- in urban areas

  • Incineration or burning at high temperature

  • Production of biogas and manure

38.18 Radioactive Pollution

  • TYPES

  • Natural(background) pollution

  • Man-made radiation

  • Atomic explosion (nuclear fallout)

  • Atomic reactors and nuclear fuel

  • Radioactive isotopes

  • Radiation therapy-x-rays

38.19 Effects of Radioactive Pollution

  • Nonionising radiations

  • Ionising radiations

  • Control of radiactive pollution

38.20 Noise Pollution

  • Sources of noise pollution

  • Effects of noise pollution

  • Effect on hearing ability

  • Effect on general health

  • Other effects

  • Control of noise pollution

38.21 Green House Effect

  • Reasons for greenhouse effect

  • CO2

  • CH4

  • CFCs

  • N2O

  • Effects of atmospheric increase in concentration of green house gases

  • Global warming

  • Effects on weather and climate

  • Changes in sea level

  • Effects on range of species distribution

  • Food production

38.22 Ozone Depletion

  • Ozone hole

  • Effects of ozone depletion

38.23 International Initiatives for Mitigating Global Change

  • Montreal Protocol

  • Earth Summit-rio de janerio 1992, 154 countries participated

  • Kyoto Protocol- december 1997, in japan

38.24 Deforestation

  • Causes

  • Population explosion

  • Fires

  • Pests

  • Grazing and gnawing mammal

  • Dams

  • Jhuming(shifting cultivation)

  • Effects of deforestation

  • Afforestatin programes

  • Social forestry programme (1976)

  • Agroforestry programme

  • Urban forestry programme

  • Production plantation

  • Reserve forests

  • People participation in saving and conserving trees and forests

  • Chipko andolan

  • Joint forest management(JFM)

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