NEET Biology Video Course

Evolution

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 1 (Introduction)

  • What is Life ?

  • Events in the History of Life

  • Origin of Universe

  • Big-bang Theory.

  • Our Solar System

  • The Sun.

  • Galaxies.

  • Planets.

  • Inner Planets.

  • Outer Planets.

  • Satellites or Moons.

  • Asteriods.

  • Comets.

  • Meteors.

  • Meteorites 

  • Our Earth

  • Crust.

  • Mantle.

  • Core.

  • Inner core.

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 2 (Origin of Life)

  • Theories of the Origin of Life

  • Ancient Theories of Origin of Life

  • Theory of Special Creation.

  • Theory of Spontaneous Generation (Abiogenesis or Autogenesis)

  • Evidences against the Theory of Spontaneous Generation.

  • Redi's Experiment

  • Spallanzani's Experiment.

  • Pasteur's Experiment.

  • Theory of Panspermia or Cosmozoic Theory or Spore Theory

  • Evidences against Cosmozoic Theory.

  • Theory of Eternity of Life.

  • Evidence Against Theory of Eternity of Life.

  • Theory of Catastrophism.

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 3 (Oparin-Haldane Theory)

  • Modern Theory or Oparin-Haldane Theory of Origin of Life

  • Chemical Evolution (Chemogeny)

  • The Atomic Phase.

  • Formation of Inorganic Molecules.

  • Formation of Simple Organic Molecules (Monomers).

  • Miller's Experiment

  • Formation of Complex Organic Molecules (Macromolecules).

  • Which came First RNA or Protein?

  • The RNA first Hypothesis.

  • The Protein First Hypothesis.

  • Cairns-Smith's Hypothesis.

  • Formation of Nucleoproteins.

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 4 (Biogeny)

  • Biological Evolution (Biogeny)

  • Conditions for the Origin of Life.

  • Protobionts or Protocells.

  • Coacervates.

  • Microspheres.

  • Origin of Prokaryotes.

  • Evolution of Modes of Nutrition

  • Heterotrophs.

  • Autotrophs.

  • Chemoautotrophs.

  • Photoautotrophs.

  • Aerobic photoautotrophs

  • Oxygen Revolution.

  • Formation of Ozone Layer.

  • Origin of Eukaryotes.

  • Symbiotic Origin.

  • Origin by Invagination.

  • Origin of Multicellular Organisms

  • Life on Other Planets

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 5 ((Paleantological Evidences I)

  • Definition of Organic Evolution.

  • Useful Information About Fossils.

  • Types of Rocks.

  • Sedimentary Rocks.

  • Igneous Rocks.

  • Metamorphic Rocks.

  • Fossilisation (Formation of Fossils).

  • Types of Fossils.

  •  Unaltered Fossils (Original Soft Parts of Animals).

  • Petrified Fossils (Altered Fossils).

  • Moulds and Casts.

  • Prints.

  • Coprolites.

  • Determination of the Age of Fossils.

  • Uranium- Lead Technique'.

  • Radio-carbon dating Technique.

  • Potassium-Argon Method.

  • Microfossils and Fossil Fuel Exploration.

  • Mass Extinctions.

  • Fossil Parks of India.

  • Some of fossil forests (fossil parks) of India are given below :

  • The Geological Time Scale.

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 6 (Palaeontological Evidences II)

  • Palaeontological Evidences (Evidences from Fossil Record)

  • Number and Nature of Fossils in Early Rocks.

  • Distribution of Fossils in the Successive Strata.

  • Disparity between the Past and Present Forms of Life.

  • Missing Links (Transitional Forms).

  • Archaeopteryx (Archae primitive, old, pteryx = wing).

  • Reptilian Characters of Archaeopteryx.

  • Avian Characters of Archaeopteryx.

  • Ichthyostega.

  • Seymouria.

  • Lycaenops.

  • Cynognathus (Dog Jaw).

  • Basilosaurus.

  • Pteridosperms (Cycadofilicales, Seed Ferns).

  • Ancestries of Some Animals

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 7 (Evolution of Horse)

  • Evolution of Horse.

  • Place of Origin

  • Evolutionary Trend.

  • Evolution of Modern Horse is briefly described as follows:

  • Eohippus (= Hyracotherium).

  • Mesohippus.

  • Merychippus.

  • Pliohippus.

  • Equus.

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 8 (Evidences-Comparative Anatomy and Physiology)

  • Evidences from Comparative Anatomy and Morphology

  • Organ Systems.

  • Homologous organs.

  • Structural homology

  • Insect Mouth Parts

  • In plants,

  • Homology is also seen amongst the molecules.

  • Analogous Organs.

  • Vestigial Organs.

  • Vestigial Organs in Human Body.

  • Vestigial Organs in Animals.

  • Vestigial Organs in Plants

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 9 (Connecting Links and Atavism)

  • Connecting Links.

  • Atavism

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 10 (Embryological Evidences)

  • Embryological Evidences (Evidences from Embryology)

  • Similarity in Early Development.

  • Resemblance among Vertebrate Embryos.

  • Resemblances among Invertebrate

  • Larvae.

  • Progressive Metamorphosis

  • Retrogressive Metamorphosis

  • Temporary Embryonic Structures.

  • Development of vertebrate organs

  • Evidences from Plant Embryos.

  • Recapitulation Theory/Biogenetic Law.

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 11 (Biogeographical Evidences)

  • Biogeographical Evidences (Evidences from Biogeography)

  • Pangaea (Gr. all earth).

  • Biogeographical Realms.

  • Palaearctic realm.

  • Oriental realm

  • Australian realm.

  • Ethiopian realm.

  • Nearctic realm.

  • Neotropical realm.

  • Discontinuous Distribution of closely related species.

  • Restricted Distribution.

  • Adaptive Radiation (=Divergent Evolution).

  • Convergent Evolution (= Adaptive Convergence).

  • Parallel Evolution.

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 12 (Biochemical Evidences)

  • Evidences from Biochemistry and Comparative Physiology

  • Evidences from Cytology

  • Taxonomical Evidences

  • Evidences from Genetics.

  • Evidences from Plant and Animal Breeding

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 13 (Lamarckism)

  • Lamarckism

  • Internal Vital Force.

  • Effect of Environment and New Needs.

  • Use and Disuse of Organs.

  • Inheritance of Acquired Characters.

  • Examples in Support of Lamarckism.

  • Evolution of Giraffe.

  • Webbed Toes of Aquatic Birds.

  • Disappearance of Limbs in Snakes.

  • Flightless Birds.

  • Deer

  • Cave Dwellers

  • Criticism of Lamarckism

  • Evidences Against the Inheritance of Acquired Characters

  • Theory of Continuity of Germplasm

  • Evidences in Favour of the Inheritance of Acquired Characters

  • Formation of Germ Cells from Somatic Cells

  • Effect of Environment directly on germ cells

  • Effect of Radiation.

  • Effect of Chemicals.

  • Neo-Lamarckism

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 14 (Darwinism)

 

  • Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection

  • Historical Aspect

  • The Principle of Natural Selection

  • Salient Features of Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection

  • Over production (Rapid Multiplication).

  • Limited Food and Space.

  • Struggle for Existence.

  • Intraspecific Struggle.

  • Interspecific Struggle.

  • Environmental Struggle.

  • Variations.

  • Natural Selection (Survival of the Fittest).

  • Inheritance of useful variations.

  • Formation of new species.

  • Criticism of The Natural Selection Theory

  • Objections Against The Natural Selection Theory

  • Evidences in Favour of Natural Selection

  • Rate of Reproduction.

  • Limitation of Resources.

  • Struggle for Existence.

  • Abundance of Variations.

  • Production of New Varieties of Plants and Animals by Artificial Selection.

  • Mimicry and Protective Colouration.

  • Correlation between Nectaries of Flowers and Proboscis of Insects (Entomophily).

  • Pedigrees of Some Animals.

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 15 (Artificial Selection)

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 16 (Mutation Theory)

  • Hugo de Vries' Mutation Theory

  • Experiments Conducted by Hugo de Vries

  • Salient Features of the Mutation Theory

  • Evidences in Favour of the Mutation Theory

  • Evidences Against the Mutation Theory (Criticism of the Mutation Theory)

  • Significance of Hugo de Vries' Mutation Theory

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 17 (Mutation)

  • Genetic Variation in Population

  • Mutations.

  • Chromosomal Mutations.

  • Changes in Chromosome Number,

  • Structural Changes in Chromosomes (Chromosomal Aberrations).

  • Gene Mutations.

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 18 (Recombination, Gene Flow, Genetic Drift)

  • Gene Recombination.

  • Gene Migration (Gene flow)

  • Genetic Drift (Sewall Wright Effect).

  • Founder Effect or Founder Principle

  • Bottleneck Effect

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 19 (Non-random mating, Hybridization)

  • Nonrandom Mating.

  • Hybridization.

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 20 (Isolation, Heredity)

  • Isolation

  • Reproductive Isolation.

  • Premating isolation and post mating isolation

  • Premating or Prezygotic Isolation.

  • Mechanical Isolation.

  • Psychological Isolation.

  • Seasonal Isolation.

  • Gametic Isolation.

  • Post-mating or Postzygotic Isolation.

  • Incompatibility.

  • Hybrid Inviability.

  • Hybrid Sterility.

  • Hybrid Breakdown.

  • Heredity

  • Natural Selection

  • Speciation (Origin of new species)

  • Types of Natural Selection

  • Stabilising Selection (Balancing Selection).

  • Directional Selection (Progressive Selection).

  • Disruptive Selection (Diversifying Selection).

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 21 (Examples of Natural Selection)

  • Examples of Natural Selection

  • Industrial Melanism,

  • Resistance of insects to Pesticides.

  • Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria.

  • Genetic Basis of Adaptation-The Lederberg Replica Plating Experiment

  • Sickle Cell Anaemia.

  • Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency (G-6-PD).

  • Genetic Polymorphism.

  • Balanced Polymorphism.

  • Transient Polymorphism.

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 22 (Species Concept)

  • Species Concept

  • Morphological Species Concept.

  • Biological Species Concept (Mayr, 1942).

  • Sibling Species.

  • Polytypic Species.

  • Evolutionary Species Concept.

  • Endemic Species.

  • Synchronic Species.

  • Allochronic Species.

  • Monotypic Species.

  • Allopatric.

  • Sympatric Species.

  • Parapatric species.

  • Important Characteristics of a Species.

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 23 (Speciation)

  • Speciation

  • Types of Speciation.

  • Allopatric Speciation

  • Sympatric Speciation

  • Parapatric Speciation.

  • Quantum Speciation.

  • Factors Influencing Speciation.

  • Polyploidy

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 24 (Biological Evolution)

  • Biological Evolution

  • Branching descent and natural selection

  • Mechanism of Evolution

  • hardy-weinberg principle

  • Essential conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Principle.

  • No Mutation.

  • No Gene flow (Gene Migration).

  • No Genetic Drift.

  • No Genetic Recombination.

  • No Natural Selection Pressure

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 25 (A Brief Account of Evolution)

  • Evolution of Plants.

  • Evolution of Animals.

  • Origin of Fishes.

  • Origin of Amphibians.

  • Ichthyostega

  • Latimeria

  • Origin of Reptiles.

  • Origin of Birds.

  • Origin of Mammals.

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 26(Relationship with other Primates)

  • Early Ideas on Human Ancestry

  • Relationship of Man with other Primates

  • Suborder Lemuroidea.

  • Suborder Tarsioidea

  • Suborder Antropoidea

  • Monkeys

  • Apes

  • Humans

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 27 (Pre-human Evolution)

  • Prehuman Evolution

  • The New World Monkeys

  • The Old World Monkeys

  • Similarities between Apes and Man

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 28 (Prior to Ape man)

  • human evolution (Evolution of Man)

  • Place of origin of man.

  • Morphological Changes involved in Evolution of Man

  • prior to ape men

  • Dryopithecus Discovery.

  • Ramapithecus. Discovery.

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 29 (Modern man)

  • ape men including prehistoric mens

  • Australopithecus (First apeman)

  • Discovery

  • Homo habilis (Able or Skillful man,The tool maker, or'Handy man')

  • Homo erectus (Erect man)

  • Java Ape man

  • Peking Man

  • Heidelberg man

  • true men including the living modern man

  • Neanderthal Man (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis)

  • Cro-Magnon man (Homo sapiens fossilis).

  • The Living Modern Man (Homo sapiens sapiens)

  • Cultural Evolution of man.

Class XII 12 Evolution-Part 30 (Homology of Man and Ape)

  • similarity between man and apes

  • Homology in chromosomes of Man and Great Apes

  • Evidences for common Ancestry of Great Apes & Man

  • Chromosomal evidence.

  • Evidence from Blood Proteins.

  • Evidence from Blood Groups.

  • Evidence from Haemoglobin.

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