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 Excretory Waste and Their Elimination

Online Biology Class 

  • Following is the list of topics that are covered during online biology classes for NEET preparation.

  • After completion of all the topics of the chapter, MCQs based on NEET Pattern questions are discussed.

  • Doubts during the class are also cleared. You can also post your doubts and we will promptly answer it.

19.1 Introduction

  • Homeostasis

  • Osmoregulation

  • Osmoconformers

  • Osmoregulators

  • Water and solute regulation in fresh water environment

  • Water and solute regulation in terrestrial environment

  • Excretion

19.2 Excretory Waste

  • Ammonotelism

  • Ureotelism

  • Urea Synthesis/Ornithine Cycle

  • Uricotelism

  • Aminotelism

  • Other nitrogenous wastes

  • other wastes

19.3 Excretory Organs

  • Excretory and osmoregulatory organs of protozoan and invertebrates

  • Excretory system of vertebrates

19.4 Human Excretory Organs

  • Kidneys

  • Renal capsule

  • Adipose capsule

  • Renal fascia

  • Cortex and medulla

  • Column or bertini

  • Renal papilla

  • Minor and major calyces

  • Juxta medullary area

  • Renal pelvis

  • Ureters

  • Urinary bladder

  • Urethra

19.5 Nephrons

  • Types of nephron

  • Cortical nephron

  • Juxta medullary nephron

  • Juxta glomerular apparatus (JGA)

19.6 Urine Formation

  • Urea formation

  • Urine formation 

  • Glomerular filtration

  • Development of filtration pressure

  • Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

  • Filtration Fraction

  • Autoregulation of glomerular filtration

  • Myogenic autoregulation

  • Juxtaglomerular apparatus

  • Neural control

  • Tubular reabsorption

  • PCT

  • Loop of Henle

  • Descending limb of loop of Henle

  • Ascending limb of loop of Henle

  • DCT, CT, Collecting duct

  • Tubular secretion

  • Modified glomerular filtrate

19.7 counter-current mechanism

  • Henle’s loop

  • Vas rectum

19.8 urine and Micturition

  • urine- fluid and dissolved waste substances

  • Quantity

  • Physical properties

  • Chemical composition

  • Abnormal materials

  • Renal threshold

  • Conduction of urine and micturition

  • Effect of alcohol

19.9 Role of Other Organs

  • lungs

  • liver

  • skin

19.10 Regulation of Kidney Function

  • control of ADH

  • By JGA (RAAS)

  • ANF

19.11 Excretory Disorders

  • Nephritis (Bright’s Disease)

  • Glomerulonephritis

  • Cystitis

  • Uremia

  • Renal tubular acidosis

  • Oedema (=dropsy)

  • Kidney stone (renal calculus)

  • Kidney/renal failure RF

19.12 Haemodialysis and Renal Transplantation

  • artificial kidney/haemodialysis

  • continuos ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)

  • kidney (renal) transplantation

  • Immunosuppression

17.11 MCQs Discussions​

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