marjanblan-GOP07ZOjBEU-unsplash.jpg

 Human Health and Diseases

Online Biology Class 

  • Following is the list of topics that are covered during online biology classes for NEET preparation.

  • After completion of all the topics of the chapter, MCQs based on NEET Pattern questions are discussed.

  • Doubts during the class are also cleared. You can also post your doubts and we will promptly answer it.

30.1 Introduction)

  • Introduction

  • What is Health?

  • Physical health

  • Mental health

  • Social health

  • Ways to Ensure Good Health

  • what is disease

  • Pathogenic Diseases

  • Genetic disorders

  • Infections

  • Life style

  • disease agents

  • Biological agents

  • Nutrient agents

  • Chemical agents

  • Endogenous chemical agents

  • Exogenous chemical agents

  • Physical agents

  • Mechanical agents

  • Genetic disorders

  • Little known agents

30.2 Introduction of Diseases

  • classification or types of diseases

  • Congenital diseases

  • Anatomical or physical abnormality from birth, by:

  • A single gene mutation

  • Chromosomal aberrations

  • Environmental factors

  • Acquired diseases

  • Develop after birth

  • Communicable

  • Non communicable

  • Organic

  • Deficiency diseases

  • Diseases due to hypo or hyper secretion of hormones

  • Allergies

  • Cancer

  • diseases caused by pathogens (communicable diseases)

  • Infection

  • Contamination

  • Infestation

  • Koch’s postulations for pathogenic diseases

  • Reservoir of infection for pathogens

  • Transmission of communicable diseases (pathogen)

  • From reservoir to healthy person by

  • Direct transmission

  • Contact with infected person

  • Droplet infection

  • Animal bites

  • Through placenta

  • Indirect transmission (through intermediate agents)

  • Arthropod vectors

  • Vehicle borne method

  • Air borne method

  • Fomite borne infection

  • Unclean hands

  • Human carriers

  • Portals of entry and exit

30.3 Communicable Diseases

  • Classification of communicable diseases

  • Viral diseases

  • Rickettsial diseases

  • Bacterial diseases

  • Spirochaetal diseases

  • Protozoan diseases

  • Fungal diseases

  • Helminth diseases

  • How pathogens cause diseases

  • Tissue damage

  • Toxin secretion

  • Exotoxins

  • Endotoxins

  • Course of a disease

  • Factors influencing infection

  • Number of invading organisms

  • Virulence of organisms

  • Resistance of the body to disease

  • Immunity

  • How to study communicable Diseases

30.4 Viral Diseases

  • Common cold/Rhinitis

  • No vaccine

  • Influenza

  • Small Pox

  • Chicken Pox

  • Measles (Rubeola Disease

  • Mumps (Infectious Parotitis)

  • Rabies (Hydrophobia)

  • Poliomyelitis

  • Dengue fever

  • Classical Dengue Fever

  • Dengue Haemorrhagic fever

  • Chikungunya

  • Hepatitis

  • Mycoplasmal Diseases

  • Chlamydial diseases

30.5 Bacterial Diseases

  • Typhoid

  • Pneumonia

  • Plague/Bubonic plague

  • Tuberculosis or Koch’s Disease

  • Leprosy (Hansen’s Disease

  • Cholera

  • Diptheria

  • Tetanus (Lock Jaw)

  • Botulisms

  • Whooping cough             

  • Gonorrhoea      

  • Syphillis               

30.6 Protozoan Diseases

  • protozoan diseases        

  • Giardiasis (= Diarrhoea)

  • Kalazar (India) or Dumdum or Visceral leishmaniasis        

  • Amoebiasis (= Amoebic Dysentery; Enteritis)

  • Trypanosomiasis.

  • African Trypanosomiasis (African Sleeping Sickness).

  • African Trypanosomiais is of two types

  • Gambian Trypanosomasis (West African Sleeping Sickness)

  • Rhodesian Trypanosomiasis (EastAfrican Sleeping Sickness)

  • American Trypanosomiasis (American Sleeping Sickness or Chagas Disease

  • Trichomoniasis (Vaginitis, Leucorrhoca)

  • Balantidiasis ( Balantidium Dysentery)

30.7 Malaria

  • Malaria

  • Pathogen.

  • Historical Aspects.

  • Life Cycle of Plasmodium

  • Life Cycle of Plasmodium in Man

  • Life Cycle of Plasmodium in Female Anopheles mosquito

  • Human Species of Plasmodium and Types of Malaria.

  • Plasmodium vivax.

  • Plasmodium falciparum.

  • Plasmodium malariae.

  • Plasmodium ovale.

  • Symptoms of Malaria.

  • Control of Malaria.

  • Treatment of the patient.

  • Prevention of Infection.

30.8 Helminthic Diseases

  • Liver rot or Fascioliasis  

  • Taeniasis             

  • Enterobiasis or Pin worm infection          

  • Filariasis (Elephantiasis)

  • Wuchereriasis or Filariasis (Elephantiasis)            

  • Ascariasis

  • Ringworm or Tinea

30.9 Fungal Diseases

30.10 Non-Communicable Diseases

  • some non-communicable diseases in man

  • diabetes mellitus

  • cardiovascular diseases

  • arteriosclerosis

  • atherosclerosis

  • hypertension

  • coronary heart diseases

  • myocardial infarction

  • angina pectoris

  • heart block

  • heart failure

  • rheumatic heart disease

  • arthritis

  • osteoarthritis

  • rheumatoid arthritis

  • septic arthritis.

30.11 Types of Immunity

30.12 Types of Acquired Immunity

  • Definition.

  • Types of Immunity

  • Innate or Natural or Nonspecific Immunity (L. innatus = inborn)

  • Physical Barriers,

  • Physiological Barriers,

  • Cellular Barriers.

  • Cytokine Barriers.

  • Acquired Immunity (Adaptive or Specific Immunity)

  • Characteristics of Acquired Immunity adaptive

  • Specificity.

  • Diversity.

  • Discrimination between Self and Non-self.

  • Memory

30.13 Components of Acquired Immunity

  • Components of Acquired Immunity

  • Antibody Mediated Immune System (AMIS or humoral Immunity)

  • Cell-Mediated Immune System (CMIS) or T-Cell Immunity

  • Types of Acquired Immunity

  • Active Immunity

  • Passive Immunity

  • Immune Response

  • The primary immune response

  •  The secondary immune response

  • Lines of Defence

  • First Line of Defence

  • Second Line of Defence

  • Third Line of Defence

30.14 Antigens

  • Antigens

  • Definition

  • Chemical Nature

  • Structure

  • Types

  • H antigen

  • Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs)

30.15 Antibodies

  • Antibodies

  • Types of Antibodies

  • Antibody Structure

  • IgA

  • IgD

  • IgE

  • IgG

  • IgM

  • Monoclonal Antibodies (MAbs)

  • Formation of Antigen-Antibody Complex (Antibody Action)

  • Epitopes (antigenic determinants)

  • Agglutination

  • Opsonization (Adherence)

  • Precipitation

  • Neutralization

  • Lysis

30.16 Immune System of the Body

  • Immune System in the Body

  • Types of Lymphoid organs.

  • Primary

  • Bone marrow.

  • Thymus.

  • Secondary lymphoid organs

  • Lymph nodes

  • Spleen

  • Tonsils

  • Peyer’s patches

  • MALT

30.17 Vaccination and Immunization

  • Vaccination and Immunisation

  • Vaccine

  • Types of Vaccines

  • Attenuated whole-agent vaccines

  • inactivated whole-agent vaccines

  • Toxoids

  • Subunit vaccines

  • Conjugated vaccines

  • Nucleic acid vaccines or DNA vaccines

  • Vaccines are also classified as follows.

  • First generation vaccines.

  • Second generation vaccines.

  • Third generation vaccines.

  • Vaccines under study.

  • Immunisation and Pregnancy.

30.18 Disorders of Immune System

  • Disorders of Immune System

  • Allergies

  • Meaning.

  • Allergens.

  • Symptoms

  • Cause.

  • Hay Fever.

  • Asthma.

  • Anaphaylaxis (Anaphylactic shock).

30.19 Autoimmunity

  • Autoimmunity

  • Immunodeficiency Diseases

  • Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases.

  • Secondary Immunodeficiency Diseases.

  • SCID

30.20 AIDS

  • AIDS

  • Structure of HIV

  • Target Cells Infection by HIV

  • Target cells of HIV

  • Transmission of HIV

  • diagnosis of HIV infection

30.21 Cancer

  • What is Cancer

  • How Cancer Cells Differ from Normal Cells

  • Types of Tumours

  • Benign Tumour (= Nonmalignant Tumour)

  • Malignant Tumour (=Cancerous Tumour)

  • Properties of Cancer Cells

  • Types of Cancers

  • Carcinomas

  • Sarcomas

  • Leukemias

  • Causes of Cancer

  • Oncogenic Transformations

  • Tumour Promoters

  • Tumour Viruses

  • Another classification of carcinogens is as follows

  • Physical irritants

  • Chemical Agents

  • Radiations

  • Biological Agents

  • Cancer and Genes

  • How Cancer Spreads

  • Detection and Diagnosis of Cancer

  • Different Sites of Cancer

  • Possible Symptoms of Cancer

  • Treatment of Cancer

  • Surgery

  • Radiation therapy

  • Chemotherapy

  • Immunotherapy

30.22 Smoking and Alcoholism

  • Tobacco Addiction/Tobacco Abuse

  • Source of Tobacco

  • Modes of Tobacco Use

  • Development of Tobacco Addiction

  • Effect of Nicotine

  • Effects of Carbon Monoxide

  • Diseases Caused by Smoking

  • Cancer

  • Cardiovascular Diseases

  • Smoker's Cough and Bronchitis

  • Emphysema

  • Pulmonary Tuberculosis

  • Passive Smoking

  • Withdrawal Symptoms and Deaddiction

  • Deaddiction

  • Central Tobacco Research Institute

  • Prevention.

30.23 Alcohol Addiction

  • alcohol addiction/abuse

  • Alcohol Abuse

  • Absorption of Alcohol (=Ethanol)

  • What happens when Alcohol is taken

  • Problems caused by Alcohol.

  • Social problems.

  • Psychological problems.

  • Physical Problems.

  • Effects of Alcohol Abuse

  • Driving and Alcohol

  • Deaddiction

  • Treatment of Withdrawal Symptoms

  • Treatment of Alcoholics

  • Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)

30.24 Psychotropic Drugs

  • Psychotropic

  • Tranquillizers

  • Phenothiazines (Major Tranquillizers)

  • Benzodiazepines (Minor Tanquillizers)

  • Sedative and Hypnotics

  • Barbiturates

  • Benzodiazepines (BZDS)

  • Opiate/Opioid Narcotics

  • Opium (Afeem)

  • Opium Derivatives

  • Morphine

  • Codeine

  • Heroin (Diamorphine or Diacetylmorphine)

  • Smack

  • Pethidine (Meperidine)

  • Methadone

  • Stimulants

  • Caffeine

  • Cocaine

  • Crack

  • Betelnut

  • Amphetamines

30.25 Psychedelic Drugs

  • Psychedelic Drugs (Hallucinogens)

  • Natural Hallucinogens

  • LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide)

  • Mescaline

  • Psilocybine

  • Cannabinoids (Products of Hemp Plant)

  • Bhang

  • Ganja

  • Charas

  • Marijuana

  • Datura and Belladona

  • Synthetic Hallucinogens

  • PCP (Phencyclidine Piperidine)

  • Methylenedioxy Methamphetamine (MDMA)

30.26 Addiction and Adolescents

  • Addiction and Dependence

  • Types of drug dependence

  • Psychological dependence

  • Physical dependence. (physiological dependence)

  • Drug withdrawal Symptoms

  • Symptoms of Drug Addicts

  • Combinations of Drugs

  • Adolescence and Drug/Alcohol Abuse

  • Deaddiction

30.27 Effects of Drug Abuse

  • Effects of Drug Abuse

  • Prevention and Control

  • LinkedIn
  • YouTube
  • Facebook
  • Twitter

RAVSUN

NEET/Board/Foundation

Contact Us