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 Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Online Biology Class 

  • Following is the list of topics that are covered during online biology classes for NEET preparation.

  • After completion of all the topics of the chapter, MCQs based on NEET Pattern questions are discussed.

  • Doubts during the class are also cleared. You can also post your doubts and we will promptly answer it.

28.1 Genetic Material

  • Essential requirements of genetic material

  • DNA is the genetic material

  • Protein and DNA

  • Experimental evidence for DNA’s role as genetic material

  • Griffith’s and avery’s transformation experiments

  • Griffith’s experiment

  • griffith’s problem

  • no role of mice

  • role of bacterial extract

  • Experiment of avery, Macleod, Mccarty

  • Transformation

  • Hershey and chase experiment

  • DNA is the genetic material of T2 phage

  • Additional evidence for DNA being genetic material

28.2 Structure of DNA

  • History

  • Location

  • Quantity

  • Chemical composition

  • Polarity

  • Variety

  • Complementarity of base pairs

  • Base pair

  • Antiparallel direction

  • Chargaff’s rules

  • Denaturation and renaturation

  • Absorbance

  • Optical rotation

  • Physical structure

  • Watson-crick model

  • Sense and antisense strands

  • cistron

28.3 Packaging of DNA helix (concept of nucleosome)

  • Types

  • Linear and circular DNA

  • Trophic and genetic DNA

  • A-, B-, C-, D-, and Z-DNA

  • Coding and noncoding DNA

  • Noncoding DNA

  • Coding DNA

  • Protein-coding DNA

  • DNA coding for r RNA, tRNA and histones

  • Function of DNA

  • Summary of DNA characteristics

28.4 Replication: Synthesis Of DNA

  • Time and site of occurrence

  • Mode of replication

  • Discovery-Meselson and Stahl

  • Procedure for DNA replication

  • Activation of deoxyribonucleotides

  • Exposure of parent DNA bases

  • Formation of RNA primer

  • Base pairing

  • Conversion to deoxyribonucleoside monophosphates

  • Formation of new DNA chains- leading and lagging strands, semicontinuous replication

  • Editing (proof-reading) and DNA repairs

  • Helix formation

28.5 Structure and Role of RNA

  • mRNA

  • tRNA

  • carrier end

  • recognition end

  • enzyme site

  • ribosome site

  • rRNA

  • additional RNA types

28.6 Transcription: Synthesis of RNA

  • TRANSCRIPTION UNIT- a promotor, the structural gene, a terminator

  • DISCOVERY

  • Experimental evidence for semiconservative

  • MATERIALS REQUIRED

  • PROCEDURE

  • Binding of RNA polymerase to DNA duplex

  • Exposure of RNA bases

  • Base pairing

  • Conversion to ribonucleoside monophosphate

  • Formation of RNA chain

  • Separation of RNA chain

  • Return of DNA segment to original form

  • Processing/maturation of RNAs

28.7 Translation: Synthesis of Proteins

  • Machinery for protein synthesis

  • Amino acids as raw materials

  • DNA as specificity control

  • RNAs as intermediaries

  • Ribosomes as proteins factories

  • Mechanism of protein synthesis

  • Activation of amino acids

  • Charging of tRNA

  • Activation of ribosomes

  • Assemble of amino acids(polypeptide formation)

  • Initiation of polypeptide chain

  • Elongation of polypeptide chain

  • Codon recognition

  • Peptide bond formation

  • Translocation

  • Termination and release of polypeptide chain

  • Modification of released polypeptide

  • Proteins for use inside and outside the cell

  • Polysome formation

  • Translational amplification

  • Energy used

  • Why are DNA and ribosomes located at different sites

28.8 Inhibition of protein synthesis in prokaryotes

  • Mechanism of gene expression

  • Colinearity of gene (DNA) and polypeptide structure

  • CENTRAL DOGMA: FLOW OF INFORMATION

  • Central dogma reverse

  • Restatement of central dogma

  • RNA world

28.9 Relationship between Genes and Enzymes

  • Inborn errors of metabolism

  • Beadle and tatum’s one gene-one enzyme hypothesis

  • Modification of beadle and tatum’s hypothesis

  • Mendelian principles and enzymic role of genes

28.10 Genetic Code

  • Meaning and role of genetic code

  • Nature of genetic code

  • Characteristic of genetic code

  • Triplet

  • No overlapping

  • No punctuation

  • Universality

  • Degeneracy (redundancy)

  • Nonambiguity of codons

  • “nonsense” or terminator codons

  • Initiation or start codon

  • Colinearity

  • Gene-polypeptide parity

  • Effect Of Mutation On Protein Structure And Function

  • Changes in protein structure

  • Effect of altered proteins

28.11 Regulation of Gene Expression

  • Meaning

  • Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes

  • Lactose or lac operon

  • History

  • Meaning

  • Types:

  • Inducible operon

  • Structural genes (cistrons)

  • Operator gene

  • Promotor gene

  • Regulator gene

  • Inducer

  • Result of lactose addition to E.Coli culture

  • Role of inducible operons

  • Repressible operon

  • Structural genes

  • Operator gene

  • Promoter gene

  • Regulator gene (trp R)

  • Role of repressible operon

  • Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes

  • Advantages of the regulation of gene action

  • House-keeping genes

28.12 Human Genome Project (HGP)

  • Goals of human genome project

  • Methodologies

  • Salient features of human genome

  • Applications of HGP

28.13 DNA Fingerprinting

  • Invention of DNA fingerprinting

  • Principle(basis) of DNA fingerprinting

  • Sources of DNA for fingerprinting

  • Procedure for DNA fingerprinting

  • Reliability of DNA fingerprinting

  • Applications of DNA fingerprinting

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