marjanblan-GOP07ZOjBEU-unsplash.jpg

5. Morphology of Flowering Plants 2

Continued..

INFLORESCENCE

  1. Arrangement of flower on floral axis is called inflorescence.

Racemose

  1.  In this type of inflorescence the main axis continues to grow and does not terminate in a flower and give off flower laterally in acropetal manner where old flowers are arranged toward base and young flowers are at tip. When peduncle is broad then flowers are centripetally arranged.

This is of following different types :

  1. Raceme – When peduncle (main axis) is elongated and flowers are pedicellate. eg. Radish, characteristic feature of cruciferae family

    1. When peduncle is branched and each branch bear pedicellated flowers like racemose and are arranged in acropetal manner known as compound raceme or panicle. eg. Gulmohar, Neem.

  2. Spike – In it peduncle is elongated but flowers are bisexual and sessile. eg. Achyranthes

  3. When peduncle is branched and each branch bear spike, like inflorescence then the small branch having flower is called spikelet and this arrangement is called as spike of spikelet. Characteristic inflorescence of family gramineae.

  4. Catkin – In it peduncle is thin, long and weak, and flowers are sessile and unisexual. Peduncle is pendulus.eg. mulberry, betula, oak.

  5. Spadix – In it peduncle is thick, long and fleshy and have small sessile and unisexual male and female flowers covered with one or more green or colourfull bracts known as spathe.eg. Colocasia, Maize, Aroids, Palms.

  6. Corymb – In it peduncle is short and all flowers are present at same level because the lower flower has much long pedicel than the upper one eg. Candytuft (Iberis amara). If in this type of inflorescene peduncle is branched, then each branch has flower cluster then this type of inflorescence is called compound corymb.eg. Cauliflower, In mustard corymbose raceme type of inflorescence is present

  7. Umbel – An inflorescence in which the flower stalks of different flowers are of more or less equal length, arise from the same point. At the base of flowers stalks, there is whorl of bracts forming the involucre. eg. Centella

    1. If in this type of inflorescence, peduncle is branched then each branch has flower cluster then this type of inflorescence is called compound umbel. eg. Coriander, Foeniculum, Cuminum. Characteristic feature of umbeliferae. * Scapigerous umbel is found in onion

  8. Capitulum / Racemose head – In it the growth of peduncle is retarded and it become broad, flattened concave or convex. On it small flowers are found. These flowers are called floret. If all the flower of capitulum are same , then it is called homogamous. If two different type of floret, ray floret and disc floret are present in same inflorescence than it is known as heterogamous. In this type of inflorescence florets may be unisexual, bisexual and sterile. This inflorescence is surrounded by one or more involucre. It is most advanced type of inflorescence. eg. Sunflower, Zinnia, Marigold, Cosmos. Characteristic feature of asteraceae family.

 

​CYMOSE 

  1. In this type of inflorescence, the peduncle terminate in a flower. In it the older flowers are present at tip and young buds are arranged towards base. This arrangement is called basipetal succession.

It is of following types.

  1. Uniparous cyme / Monochasial cyme - The peduncle ending in a flower producing lateral branch at a time of ending in flower. It is of two types -

    1. Helicoid cyme – When all lateral branches developed on the same side on peduncle then it is called helicoid cyme. eg. Heliotropium, Saraca, Atropa, Datura.

    2. Scorpioid cyme – In it the lateral branch is alternately develop on left and right side. eg. Bignonia,

    3. Riphidium – In monochasial cyme all flowers are borne on same plane. eg. Solanum nigrum

  2. Dichasial or biparous cyme – In it peduncle ends in a flower, from the basal part of peduncle two lateral branches arise, which also end in a flower, now this same arrangement occur on these lateral branches. eg. Bougainvillea, Jasmine, Teak, Mirabilis, Dianthus, Nyctanthes.

  3. Multiparous cyme / polychasial – In it peduncle ends in a flower and from the base of it many lateral branches arise which also terminates in flower, this arrangement now also occur on these lateral branches. eg. Calotropis (Madar), Nerium, Asclepias, Hamelia.

​SPECIAL TYPE OF INFLORESCENCE 

  1. Cyathium – The bracts or the involucre become fused to form a cup shaped structure on the margin. In the central part of cup shaped structure a single female flowers is found, which mature earlier. Due to the growth of pedicel this come out from the cup shaped structure. Female flower are surrounded by large no. of small male flowers. The male flower, which lie toward centre mature earlier than the flower which are towards periphery. This inflorescence is found in Euphorbiaceae family like Euphorbia, Poinsettia, Pedilanthus.

  2. Verticillaster - A cluster of subsessile or sessile 3-9 flowers born on a dichasial cyme ending in monochasial cyme (scorpioid) in the form of condensed whorl on either side of the node. The opposite clusters give the appearance of whorl or verticel due to over crowding. The verticels are further arranged in a racemose manner eg. Ocimum (Tulsi), Salvia. Characteristic inflorescence of labiateae family.

  3. Hypanthodium – In it peduncle is modified in narrow cup like structure. At the base of cup female flowers develop while towards mouth male flower develops. All three types of flowers are present in this inflorescence. eg. Banyan, Peepal, Ficus species.

  4. Coenanthium : In Dorsitenia, the receptacle becomes saucer shaped and its margins are slightly curved. Arrangement of florets are similar to hypanthodium.

  5. Mixed inflorescence – Some times flowers are arranged in both racemose and cymose manner on same peduncle called mixed inflorescence.

  6. Mixed spadix – Banana ✧ Cymose raceme or thyrsus – Grapes.

FLOWER

  1. ​Flower is defined as highly condensed and modified reproductive shoot. The part from where flower arise is called bract. Flower has short or long flower stalk which is called pedicel. The upper part of pedicel is swollen, spherical shaped or conical which is called thalamus / Receptacle.

  2. Floral leaves are present on it.

  3. In a flower there are 4 type of floral leaves are found.

  4. ✧ Sepal ✧ Petal ✧ Stamen ✧ Carpel

SOME WORDS RELATED TO FLOWER 

  1. Complete Flower – When calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium are present.

  2. Incomplete Flower – Flower with one of the four whorl missing.

  3. Bisexual Flower – Both gynoecium and androecium present in the same flower.

  4. Unisexual Flower – Androecium (staminate flower) or gynoecium (Pistillate flower) any one of them are present in the flower.

  5. Monoecious Plant – When both male and female flowers are present on the same plant. eg. Cocos,Ricinus, Colocasia, Zea, Acalypha.

  6. Dioecious Plant – When male and female flowers are present on separate plant eg. Mulberry, Papaya.

  7. Polygamous Plant – When unisexual (male or female), bisexual and neuter flowers are present on the same plant eg. Mango, Polygonum.

  8. Monocarpic Plant – The plant which produces flowers and fruits only once in life eg. Pea, Mustard, Bamboo, Agave.

  9. Polycarpic Plant – The plants which produces flowers and fruits many times in life, eg. Pear, Mango,

  10. Achlamydeous Flower – Flowers are naked without sepals and petals eg. piperaceae.

  11. Monochlamydeous Flower : Only one accessory whorl is present (Perianth) eg. Polygonaceae, Liliaceae. 

  12. Dichlamydeous Flower : Both accessory whorls present in flower. 

  13. Hemicyclic or Spirocyclic Flower : Some of the floral parts are in circles and some are spirally arranged. eg. Ranunculaceae.

  14. Cauliflory :Production of flowers on old stem from dormant buds eg. Artrocarpus, Ficus.

  15. Symmetry of flower – If the floral leaves are cyclic arranged in a flower, then it is called cyclic flower. If floral leaves are spirally arranged then it is called spiral flower. Floral symmetry is of three type -

    1. Actinomorphic / Radial / Regular – When flower is divided by any vertical plane into two equal halves, then it is called actinomorphic flower eg. Mustard, China rose, Datura, Chilli.

    2. Zygomorphic / Bilateral – When the flower is divided into two equal halves only by one vertical plane, then it is called zygomorphic flower eg. Pea, Bean, Gulmohur, Cassia.

      1. If it is divided into two equal halves, from median plane, then it is called medianly zygomorphic, eg. Ocimum (Tulsi)

      2. But if it is divided into two equal halves, by lateral plane then it is called laterally zygomorphic.

    3. Asymmetrical / irregular – When the flower cannot be divided into two equal halves from any plane, then it is called asymmetrical flower. eg. Canna.

  16. Internodal elongation in flower :

    1. Anthophore – Internode between calyx and corolla is called anthophore. eg. Silane

    2. Androphore – Internode between corolla and androecium is called androphore. eg. Passiflora

    3. Gynophore – Internode between androecium and gynoecium is called gynophore. eg. Capparis.

    4. Gynandrophore or Androgynophore – When both androphore and gynophore both conditions are found in same flower then this condition is called gynandrophore or androgynophore. eg. Cleome gynandra.

    5. Carpophore – Elongation of thalamus beyond carpels. eg. coriandrum

  17. Note : - Part of flower which lies near to mother axis is posterior part while the part which is far from mother axis is anterior part of flower.

INSERTION OF FLORAL LEAVES 

  1. Hypogynous condition – When petals, sepals and stamens are situated below the ovary, the flower is called hypogynous and in this condition ovary will be superior. eg. mustard, Chinarose, Brinjal.

  2. Perigynous condition – In it thalamus grow upwardly and form a cup shaped structure. Gynoecium is situated in the centre and other parts of flower are located on the rim of the thalamus almost at the same level. It is called perigynous. The ovary here is said to be half inferior eg. plum, peach, rose.

  3. Epigynous condition – The margin of thalamus grows upward enclosing the ovary completely and getting fused with it, the other parts of flower arises above the ovary, the ovary is said to be inferior and this condition is known as epigynous eg. Guava, Cucumber and ray florets of sun flower

  4. Bracts : Bracts are specialized leaves present in axis of flower. Bracteate – The flower which have bract is called bracteate flower. Involucre – The whorl of bract surrounding peduncle is called involucre. Involucel – Group of bracteole is called involucel.

  5. Spathe – In flowers when large bract completely encloses whole inflorescence, then it is called spathe. eg. Banana, Maize.

  6. Petaloid bract – When the size of bract of flower is greater than size of flower and these are of various coloured then it is called petaloid bract. eg. Bougainvillea.

  7. Glumes – Small, dry, scaly bracts are called Glumes. eg. Wheat, Grass.

 CALYX 

  1. The outermost whorl of flower is called calyx. Each member of this whorl is called sepal when all the sepals are free from each other, then it is called poly-sepalous condition eg. Mustard, Radish. When the sepals are fused each other, then it is called gamosepalous condition eg. Cotton, Datura, Brinjal.

  2. In calyx of Mussaenda, one of the sepal enlarge and form a leaf like structure. It may be white or brightly coloured. It attracts the insects and thus act as advertisement flag.

  3. In Trapa, calyx is modified into spines and helps in protection of fruit.

  4. In Argemone spines are present on the surface of sepal which protect the flower bud.

  5. In larkspur and Balsum, the posterior part of sepal is modified into a narrow tube. This structure is called sepal spur. Nectar is stored in it for insect attraction.

  6. In asteraceae family, sepals are modified into hairy structure. It is called pappus. The pappus is a modified calyx and helps in dispersal of fruit.

DURATION OF SEPALS 

  1. Caducous – Sepals fall just at the time of opening of flower bud. eg. Poppy. Deciduous – Sepals fall after pollination eg. Mustard

  2. Persistant – If sepals do not fall and remain attached to fruit. eg. Tomato, Capsicum, Brinjal, Cotton, Datura.

  3. * Sometime below calyx, a whorl similar to sepals is found which is called epicalyx. eg. Malvaceae family 

 

COROLLA

 

  1. The second whorl of flower is called corolla and each member of it is called Petals. When the shape and size of petals are similar then it is called symmetrical while when they are not similar then they are asymmetrical. When all the petals are free, then it is called polypetalous while when petals are fused, then it is called gamopetalous.

Forms of Corolla -

  1. POLYPETALOUS

    1. Cruciform – 4 petals are present in it. The lower narrow part of petal is called claw while the outer broad part is called limb. These petals are arranged crosswise. eg. Radish, Mustard.

    2. Caryophyllaceous – It consists of 5 petals the claw of petals are short and the limb of petals from right angle to the claw eg. Dianthus.

    3. Rosaceous – It consist of 5 or more petals. Claws are absent in it and limbs are spread regularly outwards. eg. Rose, Coconut.

  2. GAMOPETALOUS

    1. Campanulate – Five petals are arranged like bell. eg. Tobacco, Raspberry, Campanula.

    2. Funnel shaped or infundibuliform – Funnel like petals arrangement eg. Datura, Railway creeper. Tubular – Petals are like tube eg. Disc florets of sunflower.​

  3. ZYGOMORPHIC POLYPETALOUS COROLLA -

    1. Papilionaceous – Five petals are present. It's posterior petal is largest and is known as standard or vexillum. Vexillum covers two lateral petals which are called as wings and the innermost basal petals are united to form a keel or carina. Both lateral parts covers the keel. eg. Pea, Gram, Arher

  4. ​ZYGOMORPHIC GAMOPETALOUS COROLLA -

    1. Bilabiate – The petal of gamopetalous corolla is divided into two lips. The place between two lips is called corolla mouth. eg. Ocimum, Salvia.

    2. Personate – In this case the corolla is bilabiate but the two lips are near to each other eg. Antirrhinum

    3. Ligulate – The upper part of corolla is long, flattened which is attached with short narrow tube. eg. Ray florets of sunflower.

 

​AESTIVATION

The mode of arrangement of sepals or petals in floral bud with respect to the other members of the seme whorl is known as aestivation. It is of following types -

  1. Valvate – When the petal of a whorl lie adjacent to each other petal and just touches it. eg. Calotropis, Custard-apple, Mustard.

  2. Twisted – In it one part of a petal covers adjacent petals and the other part is covered by posterior petal. One margin of the petal overlaps that of the next one, and the other margin is overlapped by the third one. eg. Cotton, Ladyfinger, Chinarose

  3. Imbricate – When both margin of the one petal are covered by the others two petals and both margin of another one, covers other, Rest are arranged in twisted manner. It is of two types -

    1. Ascending imbricate – The posterior petal is innermost i.e., its both margins are overlapped. eg.Cassia, Bauhinia, Gulmohur etc. 

    2. Vexillary or Descending imbricate – The anterior petal is innermost and posterior petal is outermost & largest. eg. Pea, Bean. 

    3. Quincuncial – It is a modification of imbricate type. Out of the five petals, two are completely internal, two completely external and in the remaining petal, one margin is internal and the other margin is external. eg. Murraya, Ranunculus.

 

​PERIANTH

  1. When there is no distinction between calyx and corolla the whorl is described as perianth.

  2. Individual perianth segments are called Tepals. Green tepals are called sepaloid and coloured tepals are called petaloid. Tepals are free (polytepalous) or fused (gamotepalous). eg. Liliaceae and Graminae family

ANDROECIUM 

  1. It constitutes the third whorl of the flower and is made up of one or more stamens. Each stamen consist of filament, anther and connective. Each anther is usually bilobed and each lobe has two chambers the pollensac. The pollen grains are produced in pollensac.

  2. Attachment of filament to anther lobe :

The attachment of filament to another lobe is of 4 type -

  1. Adnate – Filament runs through the whole length of the anther from the base to the apex. eg. Michelia (Champa), Magnolia

  2. Basifixed – Filament is attached to anther by its base. eg. Datura, Radish, Mustard. Dorsifixed – The filament is attached at the centre to the back of the anther. eg. Passion flower

  3. Versatile – Filament attached to the back of the anther at a point only, thus the anther can swing freely. eg. Wheat, grass, maize.

​Cohesion of stamens 

When the floral parts of similar whorl are fused, then it is called cohesion. When the stamens of an androecium are free from one another, it is called polyandrous condition.

  1. Adelphous : when stamens are united by their filament only, it is called adelphous. It is of following types –

    1. Monoadelphous – When all the filaments are united into a single bundle but anthers are free from each other. In this type of cohesion a tube is formed around the gynoecium which is called staminal tube eg. Cotton, Hollyhock, Ladyfinger. 

    2. Diadelphous – When the filaments are united in two bundles but the anther remains free eg. Gram, Pea, Bean  In these plants from 10 stamens, 9 stamens are arranged in bundle while 1 remains free. 

    3. Polyadelphous – When filaments are united into more then two bundles. eg. Citrus, Castor. 

  2. Synandrous – When anthers as well as filaments of stamens are united through their whole length. eg. Colocasia, Alocasia, Momordica, Cucurbitaceae family

  3. Syngenesious – In it only anthers are united in bundle but filaments remain free eg. Compositae family

​Adhesion of stamens :

When the stamens are attached to other parts of flower, then it is called adhesion of stamens.

  1. Epipetalous – When stamens are attached to petals. eg. Brinjal, Datura, Tobacco, Sunflower, Potato.

  2. Epiphyllous – When stamens are attached to tepals. eg. Onion, Lily.

  3. Gynandrous – When stamens are attached to gynonecium either throughout their whole length or by their anther eg. Calotropis.

Lenght of stamens-

  1. Didynamous – When four stamens are present, out of them two are long and two are short, then it is called didynamous. eg. Labiatae family.

  2. Tetradynamous – When there are six stamens and they are arranged in two whorls. In outer whorl, there are two short stamens while in inner whorl, there are four long stamens, this condition is called tetradynamous. eg. Cruciferae family.

  1. Inserted – When the stamens are smaller than corolla. eg. Datura

  2. Exserted – Stamens are longer than corolla and are radially outward. eg. Gulmohar.

  1. Diplostemonous – The stamens are double the number of petals and present in two whorls. The outer whorl of stamens is alternating with petals (alternipetalous), while inner whorl is opposite to petals (antipetalous). eg. Liliaceae family.

  2. Obdiplostemonous – It is reverse of diplostemonous. The outer whorl of stamen is opposite to petals, while inner whorl of stamen is alternating with petals. eg. Caryophyllaceae.

  1. ​Isostemonous or Haplostemonous – In such type of condition stamens are present in single whorls. No. of stamens is equal to no. of sepals and petals and generally whorl of stamens is alternating with petals.

  2. Heterostemonous – Stamens are of different length in some flowers.

  3. Staminodes – When stamens are without pollen grains & remain sterile through out life are called staminodes e.g. Salvia verbascum.

 

GYNOECIUM (PISTIL)

It is the fourth and second essential whorl of the flower. It is female part of the flower comprising of the inner whorl of megasporophylls in the form of carpels bearing ovules. It consists of ovary, style and stigma. Ovary is the enlarged basal part, on which lies the elongated tube the style, the style connects the ovary to the stigma. The stigma is usually at the tip of the style and is receptive surface for pollen grains. The gynoecium may be monocarpellary or multicarpellary.

  1. If only one carpel is present in gynoecium this condition is called monocarpellary.

  2. If more than one carpel is present in gynoecium this condition is called polycarpellary.

  3. If all the carpels in polycarpellary / multicarpellary condition are free, then condition is called apocarpous.

  4. If all the carpels are fused together, then condition is called syncarpous.

COHESION OF CARPEL 

  1. In syncarpous gynoecium four types of cohesion are found

  2. When ovaries are fused, but stigma and style are separated with each other, eg. Dianthus, Plumbago

  3. Ovary and style are fused, but stigma are not fused. Malvaceae family. Hibiscus rosasinensis, cotton.

  4. When stigma are fused but the ovary and style are free. eg. Calotropis, Cassia fistula, Nerium.

  5. Carpels are completely fused. This condition is found in max. flowers, eg. Mustard, Radish, Tomato.

PLACENTATION 

The ovules are attached on ovary walls on one or more cushion called placenta. The arrangement of ovule within ovary wall is known as placentation. It is of following types –

  1. Marginal : Marginal placentation is found in unilocular ovary. The placenta forms a ridge along the ventral suture of the ovary and the ovules are borne on this ridge forming two rows. eg. Leguminosae.

  2. Parietal : This type of placentation is found in unilocular syncarpus ovary. In it the ovule develops on the innerwall of the ovary or on peripheral part. Ovary become bi or multilocular due to formation a false septum eg. Cucurbita, Argemone, and Cruciferae family (Mustard)

  3. Axile : It is found in multicarpellary syncarpous gynoecium. The fusion margin of carpels grown inward and meet in the centre of the ovary. Thus an axis forms in the centre of ovary, thus ovary becomes multichambered. The ovules are born at the central axis. Number of these chambers are equal to the number of carpel eg. Potato, China rose, Onion, Lemon, Orange, Tomato.

  4. Free central : This type of placentation is found in syncarpous gynoecium. In it, the ovary is unilocular and the ovules are borne on the axis in the centre of the ovary. septum are absent in ovary. Placentation is axile in beginning. After sometimes walls of chamber destroy and only ovulated central axis left. eg. Primrose, Dianthus (Caryophyllaceae)

  5. Superficial – This type of placentation is found in multicarpellary syncarpous gynoecium. The ovules are attached on the walls of locule eg. Nymphea (Water lily)

  6. Basal:The ovary is unilocular and a single ovule is borne at the base of ovary. eg. Marigold, Sunflower (Asteraceae family).

  1. ​Fertilized and ripened ovary is fruit. A Fruit consist of (i) Pericarp (fruit wall), (ii) seed.

  2. The seeds are protected inside fruit. But in some fruits. seeds are not found like in grapes, banana and such type of fruits are seedless fruit.

  3. If a fruit is formed without fertilization of the ovary it is known as parthenocarpic fruit.

  4. Pericarp : After ripening, the ovary wall change into pericarp. This pericarp may by thick and fleshy or thick and hard or thin and soft.

Pericarp is differentiated in 3 layers

  1. Epicarp :- It is the outermost layer, which is also called rind

  2. Mesocarp :- It is the middle layer.

  3. Endocarp : It forms the innermost layer.

  1. TRUE FRUIT : When the fruit is developed only from the ovary, the fruit is called as true fruit. eg. Mango, Coconut, Zizyphus

  2. FALSE FRUIT OR PSEUDOCARP : In some fruits, in place of ovary, some other parts of flower like thalamus, inflorescence, calyx are modified to form a part of fruit. These types of fruit are called false fruits. eg. Apple, Strawberry, Pear.

CLASSIFICATION OF FRUIT

Fruits are divided in three groups

✧ Simple ✧ Aggregate ✧ Composite

  1. SIMPLE FRUIT :-

These fruit develop from monocarpellary ovary or multicarpellary syncarpous ovary. Only one fruit is formed by the gynoecium. Simple fruits are of two types –

✧ Fleshy fruit  ✧ Dry fruit

Fleshy Fruit:-

 

These fruit develop from superior or inferior syncarpous gynoecium. These may be unilocular or multilocular. These fruits are indehiscent. Dispersal of seeds occur after pericarp is destroyed.

Fleshy fruits are of following types :

  1. Drupe fruit :- These fruit develops from mono or multicarpellary, syncarpous, superior ovary. In these fruits endocarp is hard and stony so these fruits are also called stony fruits. eg. Mango, coconut almond, Peach walnut, plum. Brachysclereids are present in endocarp. 

    1. In mango edible fleshy part is mesocarp and the part where seed is protected is called as endocarp. In ber, epicarp and mesocarp both are edible part. 

    2. The rind of Almond and walnut are endocarp and their edible part is seed. 

    3. In coconut epicarp is hard and thin while mesocarp is thick and consist of hard fibers The endocarp is hard and seed is protected in it. Endosperm is edible in coconut. 

  2. Berry : These fruits develop from mono or multicarpellary syncarpous ovary. Ovary may be superior or inferior, Placentation is axile or parietal. In these epicarp is thin and seeds are embedded in fleshy part. Initially seeds are attached with placenta of fruit but after maturation these seeds are deteched with placenta and are spread randomly in fleshy part. 

    1. Plants with superior ovary = Tomato, Grapes, Brinjal. Plants with inferior ovary = Guava, Banana 

    2. Date palm is one seeded berry. In it pericarp is divided into epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp. Epicarp is thin and soft while mesocarp is thick and fleshy and endocarp is thin like a membrane. Which is attached with seed.

    3. Arecanut is one seeded fibrous fruit berry. When its thick fibrous layer is removed then seed comes out which is hard.

  3. Pepo - These fruit develops from tricarpellary, syncarpous and inferior ovary. This fruit is unilocular and have parietal placentation. These fruits are fleshy and spongy. sometime fruits are bitter in taste due to presence of tetracyclic triterpine in flashy pulp. eg. fruits of cucurbitaceae family. 

  4. Pome - This fruit develops from bi or multicarpellary syncarpous inferior ovary. The rind and fleshy pulp are made up of thalamus. The main part of ovary is hard and dry and remain inside the fruit. Seeds are present in it. eg. Apple, Pear. 

  5. Hesperidium : This fruit develops from multicarpellary, syncarpous, superior ovary. This fruit is specialy found in plants of Rutaceae family. eg. Orange, Lemon, Citrus fruit. 

    1. Epicarp of these is made up of thick rind which is leathery and many oil glands are found in it. Mesocarp is white fibrous structure which is attached with epicarp. Membranous endocarp projects inward and form many chambers. Many glandular hairs are present on the inner side of endocarp. These glandular hairs are only edible parts. 

  6. Balausta : It is a multilocular multiseeded fruit, which develops from inferior ovary. Its pericarp  is hard. Persistent calyx is arranged in the form of crown. Seeds are irregularly arranged on placenta. Endocarp is hard. Testa is fleshy. This is the edible part of fruit. eg. Pomegranate (Punica granatum).

  7. Amphisarca : This fruit is multicarpellary and multichambered which develops from superior ovary. Pericarp is hard and fleshy placenta is found in them. The inner part of pericarp and placenta is edible part of fruit. Testa of seed is mucilegenous eg. wood apple (Aegle marmelos), elephant apple

Back
Continue...​

REVISION NOTES

 

CLASS 11 BIOLOGY

UNIT I – DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLD

Chapter 1 – The Living World 

Chapter 2 – Biological Classification 

Chapter 3 – Plant Kingdom 

Chapter 4 – Animal Kingdom 

UNIT II – STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS

Chapter 5 – Morphology of Flowering Plants 

Chapter 6 – Anatomy of Flowering Plants 

Chapter 7 – Structural Organisation in Animals 

UNIT III – CELL : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS

 

Chapter 8 – Cell: The Unit of Life 

Chapter 9 – Bio-Molecules 

Chapter 10 – Cell Cycle and Cell Division 

UNIT IV – PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 

Chapter 11 – Transport in Plants 

Chapter 12 – Mineral Nutrition 

Chapter 13 – Photosynthesis in higher plants 

Chapter 14 – Respiration in Plants 

Chapter 15 – Plant Growth and Development 

UNIT V – HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 

Chapter 16 – Digestion And Absorption 

Chapter 17 – Breathing and Exchange of Gases 

Chapter 18 – Body fluids and circulation 

Chapter 19 – Excretory Products and their Elimination 

Chapter 20 – Locomotion and Movement 

Chapter 21 – Neural Control and Coordination 

Chapter 22 – Chemical Coordination and Integration 

CLASS 12 BIOLOGY

Unit-VI Reproduction
  

Chapter 1 : Reproduction in Organisms 

Chapter 2 : Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants 

Chapter 3 : Human Reproduction 

Chapter 4 : Reproductive Health 

Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution

Chapter 5 : Principles of Inheritance and Variation 

Chapter 6 : Molecular Basis of Inheritance 

Chapter 7 : Evolution 

Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter 8 : Human Health and Disease 

Chapter 9 : Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 

Chapter 10 : Microbes in Human Welfare 

Unit-IX Biotechnology  

Chapter 11 : Biotechnology Principles and Processes 

Chapter 12 : Biotechnology and its Applications 

Unit-X Ecology and Environment 

Chapter 13 : Organisms and Populations 

Chapter 14 : Ecosystem 

Chapter 15 : Biodiversity and Conservation 

Chapter 16 : Environmental Issues 

  • LinkedIn
  • YouTube
  • Facebook
  • Twitter

RAVSUN

NEET/Board/Foundation

Contact Us