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 Neural Control and Coordination

Online Biology Class 

  • Following is the list of topics that are covered during online biology classes for NEET preparation.

  • After completion of all the topics of the chapter, MCQs based on NEET Pattern questions are discussed.

  • Doubts during the class are also cleared. You can also post your doubts and we will promptly answer it.

21.1 Neuron

21.2 Nervous System

  • CNS

  • PNS

  • Afferent nerves

  • Efferent nerves

  • Division of PNS

  • Somatic Nervous System

  • Autonomic Nervous System

  • Sympathetic Nervous System

  • Parasympathetic Nervous System

21.3 Control Systems of The Body

  • Nervous system

  • Endocrine system

  • Nervous System in Invertebrates

  • Functions of Nervous System

21.4 Control and coordination

  • Sensory input

  • Integration

  • Motor out put

  • Memory

  • homeostasis

21.5 Neurons

  • ​Neurons- nuclei, ganglia, tracts

  • Nerve fibres and nerves- medullated/nonmedullated, sensory,motor,mixed, schwann cells

  • Neuroglia (glial cells or neurological cells or glia)

  • Ependymal cells 

  • Neurosecretory cells

  • Cyton

  • Neurites

  • Dendrites

  • Axon

  • Types of Neurons

  • Basis of structure

  • Non polar

  • Unipolar

  • Pseudounipolar

  • Bipolar

  • Multipolar

  • Based on myelin sheath

  • Myelinated axons

  • Function of myelin sheath and nodes of ranvier

  • Non- myelinated axons

  • (above from vascular tissue)

21.6 Nerve Impulse

  • Electrical excitability

  • Conductivity

  • Resting potential and action potential

  • Features of action potential (3 important features):

  • Threshold stimulus

  • Summation

  • All-or-none principle

  • Proposers

  • Statement

  • Sodium-potassium-exchange pump

  • Generation of nerve impulse

  • Depolarization

  • Repolarization

  • Refractory period

  • Transmission (propagation) of nerve impulse along the nerve fibre

  • Axon conducts impulse only one way

  • Rate of nerve impulse

  • Saltatory conduction

  • Nerve Impulse Transmission

  • Transmission of impulse at a synapse

  • neurotransmitters

21.7 Brain

  • Brain and spinal cord

  • Arise from embryonal components

  • Prosencephalon (becomes forebrain)

  • Mesencephalon

  • Rhombencephalon (becomes hind brain)

  • Cranial Meninges

  • Duramater

  • Arachnoid

  • Piamater

  • Subdural space

  • Subarachnoid space

  • Forebrain(Prosencephalon): 3 regions- olfactory lobes, cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon

  • Olfactory lobes

  • Cerebrum

  • Corpus callosum

  • Cerebral cortex (grey matter)

  • cerebral Lobes

21.8 Functional areas of cerebrum

  • Precentral Motor Area

  • Post central sensory Area (=somaesthetic Areas)

  • Sensory Speech Area

  • The Auditory (Hearing) area

  • Wernicke’s Area

  • The visual area

  • The olfactory (Smell) Area

  • The Taste Area

  • The Motor Speech Area (Broca’s Motor speech Area)

  • Visual association area

  • Parietal association area

  • Frontal association area

  • Temporal association area

  • Basal ganglia

  • White matter

21.9 Diencephalon (thalamus + hypothalamus + epithalamus)

  • Epithalamus

  • Thalamus

  • Hypothalamus

  • Limbic system

  • MID BRAIN (mesencephalon)

  • Corpora quadrigemina

21.10 Hind Brain (Rhombencephalon)

  • (pons + cerebellum + medulla)- Posterior most part

  • Cerebellum (little brain)

  • Pons Varolli (bridge)

  • Medulla oblangata

  • Ventricles Of Brain

  • Mammalian Character Of Brain

  • Brain Stem

  • Blood Brain Barrier

  • Functions Of The Brain

21.11 Spinal Cord

  • Spinal Tracts

  • Functions Of Spinal Cord

  • Reflex Action

21.12 Reflex Action

  • Knee jerk reflex

  • Reflexes can be classified as 

  • Unconditioned reflexes:

  • Conditioned reflexes

  • According to number of synapses in the reflex path

  • Monosynaptic reflexes

  • Polysynaptic reflexes

22.13 Cranial Nerves

  • Olfactory nerve

  • Optic nerve

  • Oculomotor nerve

  • Trochlear nerve (pulley)

  • Trigeminal nerve

  • Ophthalmic nerve

  • Maxillary nerve

  • Mandibular nerve

  • Abducens nerve

  • Facial nerve

  • Vestibulochochlear nerve (auditory nerve)

  • Vestibular nerve

  • Cochlear nerve

  • Glossopharyngeal nerve

  • Vagus nerve

  • Accessory nerve

  • Hypoglossal nerve

  • Spinal Nerves

  • Posterior branch: 

  • Anterior branch: 

  • Cervical plexus:

  • Brachial plexus

  • Lumbar plexus

  • Sacral plexus

  • Coccygeal plexus

21.14 Sympathetic Nervous System

  • Sympathetic chains

  • Preganglionic fibres

  • Collateral ganglia

  • Postganglionic fibres

  • Other points

21.15 Parasympathetic Nervous System

  • Preganglionic fibres

  • Parasympathetic ganglia

  • Postganglionic fibres

  • Cholinergic neuron- secrete Acetylcholine (Ach)

21.16 Neural Disorders

  • Poliomyelitis

  • Meningitis

  • Neuritis

  • Sciatica

  • Multiple sclerosis

  • Neuralgia

  • Parkinson’s Disease

  • Wilson’s Disease

  • Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

  • Shizophrenia

  • Genetic factors

  • Brain dysfunction

  • Psychological factors

  • Symptoms

  • Boca’s Aphasia

  • Wernicke’s Aphasia

  • Amnesia as a result of Korsakoff’s Syndrome

  • Myelodyspasia

  • Tabes Dorsalis

  • Syringomyelia

21.17 Receptors Introduction

  • Receptors

  • Working Of Sensory Receptors

  • Sensory transduction

  • Integration

  • Response

  • Special And General Sense Organs

  • Sensory Adaptations 

  • Types Of Receptors

  • Regarding their location (3)

  • Exteroreceptors or external receptors

  • Proprioceptors

  • Visceroceptors or interoceptors or internal receptors

  • According to the form of the stimulus energy they detect and transform (transduce) 

  • Mechanoreceptors (mechanical)

  • Tangoreceptors

  • Meissner’s Capsules

  • Merkel’s Discs

  • Basket Nerve Endings

  • Pacinian Corpuscles

  • Phonoreceptors

  • Hair cells in organ of Corti

  • Statorectors

  • Hair cells in cristae

  • Hair cells in maculae

  • Algesioreceptors

  • Free nerve endings

  • Proprioceptors

  • Free nerve endings/Neuromuscular and neurotendinous spindles

  • Rheoreceptors

  • Hair cells in lateral line sense organs in fish

  • Photoreceptors(electromagnetic)

  • Rods and Cones of vertebrae retina/Ommatidia of compound eye

  • Chemoreceptors (chemicals)

  • Gustatoreceptors

  • Taste buds

  • Olfactoreceptors

  • Olfactory epithelium

  • Thermoreceptors (thermal)

  • Frigidoreceptors

  • End Bulb of Krause

  • Caloreceptors

  • Ruffini’s Nerve Endings

  • Electroreceptor/Galvanoreceptors

  • Smell Receptors (Olfactoreceptors) 

  • Organs in skin of some fish

  • Olfactory receptor cells

  • Supporting cells

  • Basal cells

  • Olfactory Glands (Bowman’S Gland)

  • Working

  • Gustatoreceptors

  • Gustatory Receptor Cells

  • Supporting cells

  • Taste Areas 

  • Basal Cells

21.18 Eye Structure

  • location in eye orbits formed by skull bones

  • structure of the eye

  • fibrous coat- divided into 2

  • sclera

  • cornea

  • conjunctiva

  • vascular coat

  • choroid

  • ciliary body

  • iris

  • neural coat- retina

  • pigment cells layer

  • layer of rods and cones

  • external nuclear layer

  • external plexiform layer (=outer synaptic zone)

  • internal nuclear layer

  • internal plexiform layer (=inner synaptic zone)

  • layer of ganglion cells

  • retinal gliocytes (=cells of muller)

  • contents of the eyeball

  • the lens

  • aqueous humour

  • vitrous humour

  • Eye-Accessory Structures

  • extrinsic eye muscles and their nerve supply

  • accessory structure of eye

  • eyebrows

  • eyelids (palpebrae) and eyelashes

  • glands of zeis

  • conjunctiva

  • the lacrimal apparatus

  • adipose tissue

21.19 Eye-Mechanism of Vision

  • mechanism of vision

  • binocular vision

  • common eye defects

  • near-sightedness(myopia)

  • far-sightedness (hypermetropia)

  • astigmatism

  • presbyopia (old sightedness)

  • strabismus(squint)

  • cataract (safaid motia)

  • glaucoma (kala motia)

21.20 Structure of Ear

  • External Ear

  • Pinna

  • External auditory meatus

    • Tympanic membrane

    • Functions of external ear

    • Middle Ear

    • Includes

    • Tympanic cavity

    • Functions of middle ear

    • Internal Ear

    • Semicircular canals

    • Utricle, endolymphaticus and Saccule

    • Cochlea

    • Functions of Ear

    • Function of Ear

    • Hearing

    • Equillibrium

17.11 MCQs Discussions​

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